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Monday, August 31, 2015

Southwest Ledge Lighthouse, New Haven Harbour



The Southwest Ledge Lighthouse (also known as the New Haven Ledge Light) was built in 1877. 

Southwest Ledge, on the East-Haven entrance to New Haven Harbor, is a dangerous rock formation blocking the main channel into the Harboir. 

The construction of a lighthouse on the Ledge was considered in 1845, but was too expensive a project to undertake, due to the site’s isolated location. 

Instead, a new tower was built at that time at Five-Mile Point. 

By 1873, technology had developed to the point that building a lighthouse on the Ledge was feasible and construction could begin. 

That year a storm disrupted the preparations to lay the foundation, which had to be restarted the following year. 

The Lighthouse, designed by Major George H. Elliott, has a cylindrical foundation, made of iron and filled with concrete. 

It was designed to allow winter ice to float around instead of building up and damaging the structure. 

The lighthouse was designed with Second Empire style details, including a Mansard roof. 

The superstructure, built for Southwest Ledge in a Baltimore shipyard, was considered such an impressive feat of engineering that it was put on display at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, with an actual lighthouse keeper residing inside. In the end, this structure was not sent to New Haven but was sent to Delaware Bay and became the Ship John Shoal Light. 

Instead, an identical superstructure was sent to Southwest Ledge, although, according to some sites, it was Southwest Ledge which received the original superstructure initially intended for Ship John Shoal, while the Delaware Bay lighthouse instead received the second structure, after its stay in Philadelphia.

Put in place in 1876, Southwest Ledge Light was first lit in 1877. 

A new breakwall was soon built, ending at the new lighthouse. 

The living conditions for the lighthouse keepers remained bad for many years due leaking, dampness, bad drinking water and numerous cockroaches. 

In these rough conditions, Assistant Keeper Nils Nilson went into a violent rage and chased Keeper Jorgen Jonnensen around the tower with a fire axe. 

Jonnensen was able to lock himself in a storage room and Nilson left in a row-boat. 

Soon after, in January 1908, Nilson committed suicide. 

Despite this incident, the lives of many people were saved over the years by the keepers of Southwest Ledge Light. The Light was automated in 1953 and continues as an active aid to navigation.

BRIGHTVIEW, Long Island Sound


Brightview is in Connecticut, situated between Chidsey Hill and Black Rock.

It is also nearby to Raynham. 

Landmarks in the Brightview area include:

The Nathan Hale Park
Forbes Bluff and 
East Shore Park.

FOXON POND, Long Island Sound.


Foxon is in Connecticut, situated between Lidyhites Hill and Rabbit Rock.

It is also nearby to Totoket. 

Landmarks in the Foxon area include:

The Foxon Pond
The Kennedy Field and 
Lidywhites Pond

The Big Boil, Long Island Sound, Connecticut, New England.


The Big Boil is an island in Connecticut, situated between Middle Rock and The Chimneys.

The Big Boil is also nearby to Dick Rock.

Landmarks in the Big Boil area include

The East Breakwater
The Lighthouse Marina and
The Five Mile Point Lighthouse.



Momauguin is in Connecticut, situated between The Morris Neck and Momauguin Beach.

It is also nearby to Silver Sands Beach.

Landmarks in the Momauguin area include:

Morris Cove and Tweed-New Haven Airport.

South End, Connecticut, Long Island Sound, New England


The "South End" is in Connecticut, situated between West Silver Sands Beach and Lighthouse Point.

It is also nearby to Morgan Point.

Landmarks in the South End area include:

The Lighthouse Marina
Lighthouse Point Park and
 Five Mile Point Lighthouse.

Southwest Ledge Light, New Haven Harbour, Long Island Sound, Connecticut, New England


Southwest Ledge Light
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Southwest Ledge Light
LocationNew Haven, Connecticut
Coordinates41.235°N 72.9116°W
Year first constructed1877
Year first lit1877
FoundationCast Iron and ConcreteCaisson
ConstructionCast Iron
Tower shapeOctagonal
Markings / patternWhite tower on brown pier
Focal height57 ft (17 m)
Original lensFourth order Fresnel lens
Current lensVRB-25 system
Range14 nm
Characteristicred flash every 5s
Fog signalHorn: 1 every 15s
ARLHS numberUSA-778
USCG number1-21210 [1] [2]
Southwest Ledge Lighthouse
U.S. National Register of Historic Places

Nearest cityNew Haven, Connecticut
Coordinates41°13′53″N72°55′25″WCoordinates: 41°13′53″N 72°55′25″W
Arealess than one acre
ArchitectElliot,Maj. George H.
Architectural styleSecond Empire
Governing bodyUS Coast Guard
MPSOperating Lighthouses in Connecticut MPS
NRHP Reference #89001475[3]
Added to NRHPMay 29, 1990
Southwest Ledge Light is a lighthouse in New Haven, Connecticut. United States, on the reef at main entrance to New Haven Harbor. It was one of the first to be built on a cylindrical iron foundation, an innovation by Maj. George H. Elliot to address shifting ice that is regarded to be very important in lighthouse design.[4]:3
History[edit]Construction on the Southwest Ledge Lighthouse started in 1873 and was finished in 1877. The superstructure originally intended for this light was put on display at the Philadelphia Exposition of 1876; in order to more quickly finish the light, however, a duplicate superstructure was built and installed at this light. The original house remained at the exposition until its close, and was then used for the Ship John Shoal Light in Delaware Bay.[1]
The lighthouse was automated in 1973.
The lighthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990 as Southwest Ledge Lighthouse.[3][4]
The lighthouse is currently an active aid to navigation.
See also[edit]National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut
References[edit]^ Jump up to:a b "Historic Light Station Information and Photography: Connecticut". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office.
Jump up^ Light List, Volume I, Atlantic Coast, St. Croix River, Maine to Shrewsbury River, New Jersey (PDF). Light List. United States Coast Guard. 2009. p. 214.
^ Jump up to:a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
^ Jump up to:a b Dorothy B. Templeton (October 22, 1985). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Southwest Ledge Lighthouse" (PDF). National Park Service.
[hide]vteLighthouses of Connecticut

Avery Point LightBlack Rock Harbor LightBridgeport Harbor LightFalkner Island LightFive Mile Point LightGreat Captain Island LightGreens Ledge LightLynde Point LightMorgan Point LightMystic Seaport LightNew London Harbor LightNew London Ledge LightPecks Ledge LightPenfield Reef LightSaybrook Breakwater LightSheffield Island LightSouthwest Ledge LightStamford Harbor Ledge LightStonington Harbor LightStratford Point LightStratford Shoal LightTongue Point Light

[show]vteU.S. National Register of Historic Places

Categories: Lighthouses completed in 1877Towers completed in 1877Long Island SoundBuildings and structures in New Haven, ConnecticutVisitor attractions in New Haven, ConnecticutTransportation in New Haven, ConnecticutLighthouses on the National Register of Historic Places in ConnecticutSecond Empire architecture in ConnecticutLighthouses in New Haven County, ConnecticutNational Register of Historic Places in New Haven County, Connecticut

Sunday, August 30, 2015



Tom and Betsy Rath live in a rundown house in Westport, Connecticut, Long Island Sound, New England, around 1953 (1955 in the movie). 

They have three television-addicted children (two girls and a boy) and have money problems. 

Tom is 33 years old, a Harvard graduate. 

He barely survived as an Army paratroop officer during World War II, having fought in both the European and Pacific combat theaters, during which he had an extramarital affair.

Tom has haunting flashbacks of the affair as well as his combat experiences. He killed 17 men in combat. His stay-at-home wife knows only that Tom is somehow "changed" since the war. She feels his job with a Manhattan charitable organization pays too little, so she and a fellow train commuter urge him to interview for a job at a New York-based television network.
Tom lands a public relations job, working for Ralph Hopkins, the top man at the network, an empire-builder surrounded by politicking yes-men. Hopkins is to propose the establishment of national mental health services to a group of physicians and offer his own prestige and network toward that end. Tom must figure out how his boss can best present the proposal so that the learned doctors will rise in unison and appoint Hopkins to spearhead the campaign.
Hired on a six-month probationary basis, Tom reports to a humorless game-player who rejects five different drafts of the speech and ends up substituting one of his own. Hopkins is satisfied, but Tom persuades him that the approach is all wrong, that it misrepresents Hopkins' qualifications to head the campaign. Tom's approach is more sensible; Hopkins is impressed. Tom reminds Hopkins of his own son, who was killed in combat.
There are a number of subplots:

The fraudulent scheme of the caretaker of Tom's late grandmother, who forged a will in an attempt to inherit the deceased woman's home.

Hopkins' estrangement from his daughter (who quits school to elope with an undesirable man).
Tom's adulterous behavior during the war, which resulted in a son conceived in Italy, whose mother suddenly contacts him to seek monetary support at a most inconvenient time. With no understanding of the horrors of war, Betsy becomes furious upon learning of this secret and becomes estranged from Tom. However, she comes to understand that mutual emotional support—not just mutual ambition—bind wife and husband.

In the end, seeing the example of how his boss's marriage and family life have been ruined by overwork, Tom turns down a high-pressure position involving travel, in order to work normal hours and spend more time at home.



The premise involves the married men of the Stamford, Connecticut, New England, Long Island Sound, and their fawning, submissive, impossibly beautiful wives. 

The protagonist is Joanna Eberhart, a talented photographer newly arrived from New York with her husband and children, eager to start a new life. As time goes on, she becomes increasingly disturbed by the zombie-like, submissive wives of Stepford, especially when she sees her once independent-minded friends—fellow new arrivals to Stepford—turn into mindless, docile housewives overnight. Her husband, who seems to be spending more and more time at meetings of the local men's association, mocks her fears.

As the story progresses, Joanna becomes convinced that the wives of Stepford are being poisoned or brainwashed into submission by the men's club. She visits the library and reads up on the pasts of Stepford's wives, finding out that some of the women were once feminist activists and very successful professionals, while the leader of the men's club is a former Disney engineer and others are artists and scientists, capable of creating lifelike robots. Her friend Bobbie helps her investigate, going so far as to write to the EPA to inquire about possible environmental toxins in Stepford. However, eventually, Bobbie is also transformed into a docile housewife and has no interest in her previous activities.

At the end of the novel, Joanna decides to flee Stepford but when she gets home she finds that her children have been taken. She asks her husband to let her leave but he takes her car keys. She manages to escape from the house on foot and several of the men's club members track her down. They corner her in the woods and she accuses them of creating robots out of the town's women. The men deny the accusation and ask Joanna if she would believe them if she saw one of the other women bleed. Joanna agrees to this and they take her to Bobbie's house. Bobbie's husband and son are upstairs, with loud rock music playing—as if to cover screams. The scene ends as Bobbie brandishes a knife at her former friend.

In the story's epilogue, Joanna has become another Stepford wife gliding through the local supermarket and has given up her career as a photographer, while Ruthanne (a new resident in Stepford) appears poised to become the conspiracy's next victim.



The novel takes place over Thanksgiving weekend 1973, during a dangerous ice storm and centers on two neighboring families, the Hoods and the Williamses, and the difficulties they have dealing with the tumultuous political and social climate of the day, in affluent suburban Connecticut, New England, Long Island Sound, during the height of the sexual revolution. 

The novel is narrated from four different perspectives, each of them a member of the two families, who are promoting their own opinion and views of the several complications that arise throughout the novel, including their encounters and daily life. 

The Hood family is overridden with lies: Ben is currently in an affair with his married neighbor Janey, his wife Elena is alienated, her daughter ventures on her own sexual liaisons with both females and males of her age, including her neighbours Mikey and Sandy.

The Hoods are Ben, Elena, Paul and Wendy and the Williamses are Jim, Janey, Mikey, and Sandy. 

The story focuses on the 24 hours when a major ice storm strikes the town of New Canaan, Connecticut, New England, Long Island Sound, just as both families are melting down from the parents' alcoholism, escapism and adultery, and their children's drug use and sexual experimentation.



On a sunny day in an affluent suburb in Connecticut, New England, Long Island Sound, a fit and tanned man in a bathing suit, Ned Merrill (Burt Lancaster), drops by a pool party being held by friends. 

They offer him a cocktail while nursing hangovers from the night before. 

As they share stories, Ned realizes that there is a series of swimming pools that form a "river" to his house, making it possible for him to "swim" his way home. Ned dives into the pool, emerging at the other end and beginning his journey. Ned's behavior perplexes his friends, who know things about his recent past he seems to have forgotten.

As Ned travels he encounters other neighbors. He meets Julie (Janet Landgard), who used to babysit his daughter, and reveals his idea to her; she joins him. Together, they have several experiences, including crashing another pool party and sipping champagne. While chatting in the forest, Julie reveals that she had a schoolgirl crush on Ned, who begins talking about how he will protect her, making plans for the two of them. Discomfited, Julie runs away.

The neighborhood is full of judgmental, well-heeled people intent on one-upsmanship, and Ned continues to be confronted by reminders that his past was not always as he remembers it.

Ned meets a wealthy older couple, unbothered by his eccentric behavior but also unimpressed by his posturing, and a lonely young boy with whom Ned spends a short time. He fails to make any real connection with the people he meets, being obsessed with his journey, and becoming increasingly out of touch with reality.
Ned carries on with his plan. He walks into another party where the hostess, who seems to have had a past encounter with him, playfully calls him a "party crasher". 

He encounters there a bubbly girl, Joan (Joan Rivers), who does not know him. 

Ned asks her to join him, and Joan is intrigued until she is warned off by a friend. Ned jumps into the pool, grabbing the attention of the guests. When he gets out of the water, he notices a cart that used to be his, being used to serve hot dogs. Ned gets into a spat with the homeowner, who claims to have bought it at a white elephant sale.
Ned then shows up at the backyard pool of Shirley Abbott (Janice Rule), a stage actress with whom he had an affair several years earlier. His warm memories of their time together are not in agreement with her own experience of having been "the other woman". Unable to reconcile his feelings with the pain he has caused, Ned wades into the deep end of the pool.

Ned continues on, winding up at a crowded public swimming pool. 

He is confronted by local shopkeepers who ask him "How do you like our water?" and ask him when he will settle his unpaid bills. When some of them let loose vicious comments about his wife's snobbish tastes and his out-of-control daughter's recent troubles with the law, it is too much for Ned and he flees.
Near sunset, a shivering, limping Ned staggers home, as rain pours down, and finds his house locked and deserted. Peering in through a window, he sees that it has been emptied of furniture, and appears to have been abandoned for some time.



Jim Blandings (Grant), a bright account executive in the advertising business, lives with his wife Muriel (Loy) and two daughters in a cramped New York apartment.

Muriel secretly plans to remodel their apartment.

After rejecting this idea, Jim Blandings comes across an ad for new homes in Connecticut, Long Island Sound, New England, and they get excited about moving.

Planning to purchase and fix up an old home, the couple contact a real estate agent, who uses them to unload "The Old Hackett Place" in Fairfield County, Connecticut, Long Island Sound, New England.

The Old Hackett Place is a dilapidated, two-hundred-year-old farmhouse.

Blandings purchases the property for more than the going rate for land in the area, provoking his friend/lawyer Bill Cole (Douglas) to chastise him for following his heart rather than his head. (Cole narrates the film, smoking a pipe, an apparent nod to the stage manager character in Thornton Wilder's Our Town.)

The old house, dating from the Revolutionary War-era, turns out to be structurally unsound and has to be torn down.

The Blandingses hire architect Simms (Reginald Denny) to design and supervise the construction of the new home.

From the original purchase to the new house's completion, a long litany of unforeseen troubles and setbacks beset the hapless Blandings and delay their moving-in date.

On top of all this, at work Jim is assigned the task of coming up with a slogan for "WHAM" Brand Ham, an advertising account that has destroyed the careers of previous account executives assigned to it.

Jim also suspects that Muriel is cheating on him with Bill Cole after Bill slept at the Blandingses's alone in the house with Muriel one night due to a violent thunderstorm.

With mounting pressure, skyrocketing expenses, and his new assignment, Jim starts to wonder why he wanted to live in the country.

The Blandingses's maid Gussie provides Blandings with the perfect WHAM slogan, and he saves his job.

As the film ends, Bill Cole says that he realizes that some things "you do buy with your heart."



Gentleman's Agreement is a drama film about a journalist (played by Gregory Peck) who poses as a Jew to research an exposé on anti-semitism in New York and the affluent community of Darien, Connecticut, Long Island Sound, New England.

New England

Lower Fairfield County: A Natural History


The "Gold Coast", as it is obscenely called, also "better" known as Southwestern Connecticut or Lower Fairfield County, is a region of the state of Connecticut, Long Island Sound, New England, that includes the entire southern portion of Fairfield County as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, Super-Public Use Microdata Area (Super-PUMA) Region 09600.

The area is about 50 miles to the northeast of New York, and is home to many wealthy NYC=based business people -- and some gentlemen!

This area is often portrayed in culture as a bastion of wealth.

Some of the novels and films that have taken place here include:

"The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit",
"The Stepford Wives",
"The Ice Storm", 
"The Swimmer,"
"Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House"
"Gentleman's Agreement".


The distinction of being called the wealthiest town in Connecticut can be attributed to either Darien, Greenwich or New Canaan, depending on the statistic used.

The bad thing is that New Canaan is not COASTAL and so it really doesn't count as 'coast', gold or not!

According to the 2000 US Census, New Canaan was first in per capita income ($82,049), Darien second ($77,519) and Greenwich third ($74,346).

According to the Connecticut 2014-15 Adjusted Equalized Net Grand List per Capita (AENGLC); Per Capita Income for Greenwich was $91,478, Darien $94,376, and New Canaan $99,016 the highest out of the 169 towns in Connecticut.

However, per capita income does not take into account personal assets:

homes, jewelry, art, boats or automobiles.

In 2000, New Canaan had a higher percentage of RESIDENT home-owners (83%) than Greenwich (69%), which may indicate more wealth.

According to some sources, the wealthiest town along the Gold Coast should be New Canaan because of their higher rate of home ownership suggesting a higher level of personal assets.

More recently, another source named Darien the state's richest town in 2011.

An additional consideration is to measure wealth per PERSON - not aggregate town wealth.

Both the Adjusted Equalized Net Grand List per Capita (AENGLC) Wealth Value and the CPR AENGLC Wealth Value, show that Greenwich has the highest wealth value in Connecticut at over $430,000 per person.

The AENGLC is based on the value of residential and commercial real estate, and measures the town's tax base available to pay for public education (see Conn. Dep of Ed).

It is not a measure of the PERSONAL wealth of INDIVIDUAL residents.

Towns and cities
Stamford area --
Greenwich--Cos Cob
New Canaan
Stamford--Shippan Point
Westport--Green's Farms
Bridgeport--Black Rock
Fairfield--Greenfield Hill--Southport


ump up^ Census.gov website retrieved 2011-06-26 [1]
How Census Income Estimates Provide Misleading Statistics on Personal Income for Connecticut Towns [2]
The Daily Fairfield retrieved 2011-07-03[3]
JState of CT official website retrieved on 2011-06-27[4]
South Western Regional Planning Agency
State of Connecticut
New York metropolitan area

Categories: Regions of Connecticut Metropolitan areas of Connecticut New York metropolitan area

FAIRFIELD COUNTY: A natural history -- Connecticut, New England, Long Island Sound.


Fairfield County, Connecticut was founded in 1666.

It has no seat.

Wisely, since 1960 Connecticut counties no longer have a county government.

Fairfield (1666–1853)
Bridgeport (1853–1960)

Largest city: Bridgeport (in terms of population)
Newtown (in terms of area)
 • Total 837 sq mi (2,168 km2)
 • Land 625 sq mi (1,619 km2)
 • Water 212 sq mi (549 km2), 25.3%

 • (2010) 916,829
 • Density 1,467/sq mi (566/km²)

Congressional districts 3rd, 4th, 5th

Fairfield County is the southwestern-most and most populous county of the state of Connecticut, New England, on Long Island Sound.

As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 916,829, estimated to have increased by 3.1% to 945,438 in 2014.

The county contains four of the state's largest cities:

Bridgeport (1st) -- COASTAL
Stamford (3rd) -- COASTAL
Norwalk (6th) -- COASTAL
Danbury (7th) -- NOT COASTAL), whose combined population of 433,368 is almost half the county's.

The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Fairfield County as the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT Metropolitan Statistical Area.

The United States Census Bureau ranked the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT Metropolitan Statistical Area as the 57th most populous metropolitan statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012.

The Office of Management and Budget has further designated the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT Metropolitan Statistical Area as a component of the more extensive New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area, the most populous combined statistical area and primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012.

Fairfield County's "Gold Coast" helped rank it sixth in the US in per-capita personal income by the Bureau of Economic Analysis in 2005, contributing substantially to Connecticut being one of the most affluent states in the US.

Other communities are more densely populated and economically diverse than the affluent areas for which Fairfield county is better known -- by the 'snobs'.

As is the case with all eight of Connecticut's counties -- four of which are COASTAL, from west to east: FAIRFIELD, NEW HAVEN, MIDDLESEX, and NEW LONDON -- there is no county government and no county seat.

As an area it is only a geographical point of reference, as once said of Italy ("only a geographical expression").

In Connecticut individual towns (and Fairfield have a few which are COASTAL) are responsible for all local governmental activities including fire and rescue, schools, and snow removal.

In a few cases, neighboring towns will share certain resources.

Fairfield County was the home of many small, unconnected Native American tribes prior to the coming of the Europeans.

From west to east, the Wappinger sachemships included the Siwanoy, the Tankiteke, and the Paugussetts.

There were also Paquioque and Potatuck inhabitants of Fairfield County.

The Dutch explorer Adriaen Block explored coastal Connecticut in the spring and early summer of 1614 in the North American built vessel Onrust, but was not impressed (but then he was Dutch, rather than a nutmegger!).

The first European settlers of the county, however, were Puritans and Congregationalists from England -- hence the sobriquet: "New England" (cfr. "Nuova Italia", non-existant!).

Roger Ludlow (1590–1664), one of the founders of the Colony of the Connecticut River, helped to purchase and charter the towns of Fair Field (1639) and Norwalk (purchased 1640, chartered as a town in 1651.

Ludlow is credited as having chosen the name Fair Field.

Fairfield is a descriptive name referring to the beauty of their fields -- in this respect, it contrasts with My Fair Lady, which is supposed to be an irony on Mayfair Lady!

The town of Stratford was settled in 1639 as well by Adam Blakeman (1596–1665).

William Beardsley (1605–1661) was also one of the first settlers of Stratford in 1639.

Fairfield County was established by an act of the Connecticut General Court in Hartford along with Hartford County
New Haven County, and
New London County
which were the first four Connecticut counties, on May 10, 1666. Middlesex was yet to come, and it's coastal!

From transcriptions of the Connecticut Colonial Records for that day:

"This court orders that from the east bounds of Stratford to the bounds of Rye shall be for future one county which shal be called "The County of Fairfield."

And it is ordered that the County Court shall be held at Fairfield on the second Tuesday in March and the first Tuesday of November yearly. 

The original Fairfield County consisted of the towns of:

0. Rye (now no longer a part of New England)

1. Greenwich

2. Stamford

2'. No Darien.

3. Norwalk

4. Fairfield

4'. No Bridgeport.

5. Stratford.

In 1673, the town of Woodbury was incorporated and added to Fairfield County.

In 1683, New York and Connecticut reached a final agreement regarding their common border.

This resulted in the cession of the town of Rye and all claims to the Oblong to New York.

From the late 17th to early 18th centuries, several new towns were incorporated in western Connecticut and added to Fairfield County, namely:

Danbury (1687) NON-COASTAL
Ridgefield (1709), Newtown (1711), and New Fairfield (1740).

In 1751, "Litchfield County" was constituted, taking over the town of Woodbury.

The final boundary adjustment to Fairfield County occurred in 1788 when the town of Brook Field was incorporated from parts of Newtown, Danbury, and New Milford, with Fairfield County gaining territory from Litchfield County.

Other early county inhabitants include.

Joseph Hawley (born 1603, died 1690), who had emigrated tin 1629 and ettled in Stratford in 1650, later becoming Stratford's first town clerk.

Joseph Hawley's son Ephraim built the Ephraim Hawley House in 1683 in Trumbull that is still standing and serves as a private residence.

Thomas Fitch (1700–1774), from Norwalk, was a governor of the Colony of Connecticut.

Gold Selleck Silliman (1732–1790) of the town of Fairfield fought for the Americans during the American Revolutionary War and rose to the rank of Brigadier General by 1776.

He fought in the New York campaign that year.
During the Revolutionary War, Connecticut's prodigious agricultural output led to it being known informally as "the Provisions State".

In the spring of 1777, the British Commander-in-Chief, North America General William Howe, in New York, ordered William Tryon to interrupt the flow of supplies from Connecticut that were reaching the Continental Army.

Tryon and Henry Duncan led a fleet of 26 ships carrying 2,000 men to Westport's Compo Beach (of Scott Fitzgerald fame) to raid Continental Army supply depots in Danbury on April 22, 1777.

American Major General David Wooster (1710–1777), who was born in Stratford, was in charge of the stores at Danbury and defended them with a force of only 700 troops.

Sybil Ludington helped rally New York militia to aid in the defense of Danbury.

The New York militia included Sybil's father Colonel Henry Ludington.

Though they arrived too late to save Danbury from burning, the elder Ludington and the New York militia helped support the Danbury troops and ensuing engagement of the British known as the Battle of Ridgefield on April 27, 1777.

Wooster was wounded at Ridgefield and died five days later in Danbury.

Two years later during a Brit raid on Greenwich on February 26, 1779 Israel Putnam, who had stayed at Knapp's Tavern the previous night, rode away on his horse to warn the people of Stamford.

Putnam was shot at by the Brit raiders but was able to escape.

The hat he was wearing with a musket ball hole in it is on display at Knapp's Tavern in Greenwich (which is commonly, albeit somewhat erroneously, called Putnam's cottage).

In the summer of 1779, William Tryon sought to punish Americans by attacking civilian targets in coastal Connecticut with a force of about 2,600 British troops.

New Haven and East Haven were raided on July 5 1779, Fairfield was raided on the 7th and burned.

Norwalk was raided on July 10 and burned on the 11th.

Norwalk militia leader  Stephen Betts put up resistance to the invaders, but was overwhelmed by the powerful British raiders and was forced to retreat.

David Sherman Boardman (1786–1864) was a prominent early lawyer and judge in this and neighbouring Litchfield County.

On October 7, 1801, Neremiah Dodge and other members of the Danbury Baptist Association wrote a letter to then president Thomas Jefferson expressing their concern that as Baptists they may not be able to express full religious liberty in the state of Connecticut whose "ancient charter" was adopted before the establishment of a Baptist church in the state.

Jefferson replied in a letter to Dodge and the other members of the Danbury church on January 1, 1802 in which he thought that there was "a wall of separation between church and State" that protected them.

This well-known phrase occurs in Jefferson's letter to the Danbury church members and not in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, nor in later amendments.

Although it is often viewed as an extension of "metro-New York", Fairfield County has had much industry in its own right.

Bridgeport Machines, Inc., a milling machine manufacturer, was founded in Bridgeport in 1938.

Stamford, Connecticut is an example of edge city urbanization, with many large and important companies having offices there and benefitting from proximity to New York.

It is also famous for coining 'exurbia' (Greenwich is suburbia).

At the height of its influence in the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan had a distinct presence in the county and county politics.

The group was most active in Darien.

The Klan has since disappeared from the county.

Fairfield County, along with all other Connecticut counties, was abolished as a governmental agency in accord with state legislation that took effect October 1, 1960.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 837 square miles (2,170 km2), of which 625 square miles (1,620 km2) is land and 212 square miles (550 km2) (25.3%) is water.

The terrain of the county trends from flat (yet rocky, fortunately, unlike sandy Long Island) near the coast to hilly and higher near its northern extremity.

The highest elevation is 1,290 feet (393 m) above sea level along the New York state line south of Branch Hill in the Town of Sherman.

The lowest point is sea level itself.

The Taconic Mountains and the Berkshire Mountains ranges of the Appalachian Mountains run through Fairfield County.

The Taconics begin roughly in Ridgefield and the Berkshires begin roughly in Trumbull, both running north to Litchfield County and beyond.

A portion of the Taconics also is in rural Greenwich and rural Stamford in Fairfield County and run north into Westchester County, New York, eventually re-entering Fairfield County in Ridgefield.

Also a small portion of the Appalachian Trail runs through the county.

The Appalachian Trail enters Connecticut in the northernmost and least populous town in the county, Sherman, and moves east into Litchfield County which encompasses the majority of the Appalachian Trail in Connecticut.

The section of the Taconic Mountains range that runs through Greenwich and North Stamford of Fairfield County is also the part of the Appalachians that is closest to the coast out of the entire Appalachian Mountains.

The agreed 1684 territorial limits of the county are defined as 20 miles (32 km) east of New York's Hudson River, which extends into Long Island Sound with a southernly limit of half way to Long Island, New York.

The eastern limit is defined as the half way point of The Housatonic River with New Haven County with the exception of several islands belonging wholly to Stratford.

The depth of the Sound varies between 60 to 120 feet (37 m).

The county is home to:

The Byram River,
The Housatonic River,
The Mianus River
The Mill River
The Norwalk River
The Pequonnock River
The Rippowam River, and
The Saugatuck River.
The adjacent counties are
Litchfield County (north)
New Haven County (east)
Westchester County, New York to the south-west.
Putnam County, New York (west)
Dutchess County, New York (northwest)
National protected areas:

Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (part)
Weir Farm National Historic Site
Historical population
Census Pop.  %±
1790 36,290  —
1800 38,208  5.3%
1810 41,050  7.4%
1820 42,739  4.1%
1830 47,010  10.0%
1840 49,917  6.2%
1850 59,775  19.7%
1860 77,476  29.6%
1870 95,276  23.0%
1880 112,042  17.6%
1890 150,081  34.0%
1900 184,203  22.7%
1910 245,322  33.2%
1920 320,936  30.8%
1930 386,702  20.5%
1940 418,384  8.2%
1950 504,342  20.5%
1960 653,589  29.6%
1970 792,814  21.3%
1980 807,143  1.8%
1990 827,645  2.5%
2000 882,567  6.6%
2010 916,829  3.9%
Est. 2014 945,438 [16] 3.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[17]
1790-1960[18] 1900-1990[19]
1990-2000[20] 2010 and 2014[1]

As of the census[21] of 2000, there were 882,567 people, 324,232 households, and 228,259 families residing in the county.

The population density was 1,410 people per square mile (545/km²).

 There were 339,466 housing units at an average density of 542 per square mile (209/km²).

The racial makeup of the county was 79.31% White, 10.01% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 3.25% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.70% from other races, and 2.49% from two or more races. 11.88% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

17.6% were of ITALIAN ancestry.
12.4% Irish
6.5% German
6.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000.

In 2010, 66.2% of Fairfield County's population was non-Hispanic whites and 10.8% of the population was black.

Asians were 4.6% of the population.

Hispanics now constituted 16.9% of the population.

As of 2000, 76.2% spoke English, 11.0% Spanish, 2.0% Portuguese, 1.7% Italian and 1.1% French as their first language.

Some of the last group were Haitians, although other Haitians would identify Haitian creole as their first language.

There were 324,232 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.50% were married couples living together, 11.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.60% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.18.

In the county the population was spread out with 25.60% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 30.90% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, and 13.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 93.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.60 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $65,249, and the median income for a family was $77,690. Males had a median income of $51,996 versus $37,108 for females. The per capita income for the county was $38,350. About 5.00% of families and 6.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.30% of those under age 18 and 6.60% of those age 65 or over.
Demographic breakdown by town[edit]

See also: List of Connecticut locations by per capita income
Data is from the 2010 United States Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.[23][24]
Rank Town  Per capita
income Median
income Median
income Population Number of

1 New Canaan --  $100,824 $179,338 $220,278 19,738 7,010
2 Darien --  $95,577 $175,766 $211,313 20,732 6,698
3 Greenwich --  $92,759 $124,958 $167,825 61,171 23,076
4 Weston --  $92,735 $209,630 $242,361 10,179 3,379
5 Westport --  $90,792 $150,771 $182,659 26,391 9,573
6 Wilton --  $78,234 $153,770 $181,763 18,062 6,172
7 Ridgefield --  $72,026 $132,907 $166,036 24,638 8,801
8 Redding --  $65,594 $130,557 $145,833 9,158 3,470
9 Easton --  $63,405 $140,370 $163,194 7,490 2,577
10 Fairfield --  $55,733 $113,248 $138,067 59,404 20,457
11 Brookfield --  $49,705 $109,008 $127,617 16,452 6,129
12 Sherman -- $48,637 $115,417 $129,177 3,581 1,388
13 Newtown --  $45,308 $108,148 $120,507 27,560 9,459
14 Stamford --  $44,667 $75,579 $88,050 122,643 47,357
15 Trumbull --  $44,006 $102,059 $117,855 36,018 12,725
16 Newtown --  $43,916 $106,141 $109,821 1,941 696
17 Monroe --  $43,842 $109,727 $119,357 19,479 6,735
18 Norwalk --  $43,303 $76,161 $93,009 85,603 33,217
19 New Fairfield --  $39,486 $101,067 $108,720 13,881 4,802
20 Shelton -- $38,341 $80,656 $97,211 39,559 15,325
21 Bethel -- $36,608 $83,483 $99,568 18,584 6,938
22 Stratford --$32,590 $67,530 $83,369 51,384 20,095
23 Danbury -- $31,461 $65,275 $74,420 80,893 28,907
24 Bridgeport -- $19,854 $41,047 $47,894 144,229 51,255

Data is from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates, "Race alone or in combination with one or more other races."[25]
Rank Town  Population White Black Asian American
Indian Other Hispanic

1 Bridgeport 143,412 49.8% 35.9% 3.9% 0.6% 11.8% 36.7%
2 Stamford City 121,784 61.0% 15.5% 8.7% 0.3% 16.3% 24.4%
3 Norwalk City 85,145 77.2% 14.0% 4.3% 0.6% 6.0% 20.2%
4 Danbury City 80,101 74.2% 8.7% 6.5% 1.2% 13.0% 25.1%
5 Greenwich Town 61,023 87.1% 2.3% 7.6% 0.2% 3.9% 9.0%
6 Fairfield Town 59,078 92.9% 1.8% 5.0% 0.2% 1.4% 4.4%
7 Stratford Town 51,116 79.5% 14.2% 3.7% 0.5% 4.1% 15.3%
8 Shelton Town 39,310 92.6% 2.0% 2.5% 0.3% 3.1% 7.1%
9 Trumbull Town 35,752 91.9% 2.4% 5.4% 0.2% 1.5% 6.0%
10 Newtown Town 27,235 92.7% 2.0% 3.4% 0.5% 3.0% 6.0%
11 Westport Town 26,249 93.3% 1.4% 5.4% 0.1% 1.5% 3.6%
12 Ridgefield Town 24,469 96.0% 1.0% 3.2% 0.3% 0.7% 3.2%
13 Darien Town 20,580 95.2% 0.8% 3.8% 0.1% 1.3% 3.7%
14 New Canaan Town 19,642 96.4% 1.0% 2.5% 0.3% 0.8% 1.8%
15 Monroe Town 19,398 96.9% 0.2% 2.4% 0.1% 0.7% 4.5%
16 Bethel Town 18,584 90.5% 2.5% 5.1% 0.4% 3.5% 7.6%
17 Wilton Town 17,973 93.2% 1.2% 5.7% 0.0% 1.0% 2.8%
18 Brookfield Town 16,339 92.0% 1.6% 6.1% 0.4% 0.9% 4.4%
19 New Fairfield Town 13,847 95.3% 0.6% 0.9% 0.6% 3.6% 6.5%
20 Weston Town 10,142 96.1% 1.7% 3.0% 0.6% 0.8% 2.9%
21 Redding Town 9,058 95.7% 1.8% 2.8% 2.1% 0.3% 2.6%
22 Easton Town 7,452 96.7% 1.3% 2.5% 0.0% 0.0% 2.2%
23 Sherman Town 3,598 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.6%
24 Newtown Borough 2,035 97.7% 0.8% 2.0% 0.9% 0.5% 2.7%
Presidential election results[edit]
Year Republican Democratic
2012 44.2% 175,168 54.9% 217,294
2008 40.5% 167,736 58.7% 242,936
2004 47.3% 189,605 51.4% 205,902
2000 43.1% 159,659 52.3% 193,769
1996 41.4% 144,632 48.9% 172,337
1992 42.8% 175,158 39.1% 160,202
1988 59.0% 221,316 39.9% 149,630
1984 65.8% 257,319 33.8% 132,253
1980 54.9% 201,997 33.7% 124,074
1976 58.1% 209,458 41.2% 148,353
1972 64.0% 233,188 34.3% 125,128
1968 51.8% 173,108 41.7% 139,364
1964 39.2% 125,576 60.8% 194,782
1960 53.4% 167,778 46.6% 146,442
Government and municipal services[edit]

As of 1960, counties in Connecticut do not have any associated county government structure.

Thus Fairfield County is only a geographical point of reference.

All municipal services are provided by the towns, who sometimes will share certain resources through regionalization. In order to address issues concerning more than one town, several regional agencies that help coordinate the towns for infrastructure, land use, and economic development concerns have been established.

Within the geographical area of Fairfield County, the regional agencies are:

Greater Bridgeport

South Western

The Valley (partly in New-Haven County)

Housatonic Valley (partly in Litchfield County)

Several former county municipal buildings are used by other state or local agencies, including:
The Fairfield County Jail in Bridgeport on the corner of North Avenue and Madison Avenue, still actively used to house prisoners.

The Fairfield County Court Houses in Bridgeport and Danbury which served the county's judicial needs and housed county deputy sheriff's until December 2000. The court houses are still marked "Fairfield County Court House".

Law enforcement[edit]
Fairfield County, Connecticut Sheriff's Department patch

Law enforcement within the geographic area of the county is provided by the respective town police departments, whereas in other states in the region such as New York and Vermont law enforcement would be provided by the local county sheriff's department.

In the less dense areas, such as Sherman, law enforcement is primarily provided by the Connecticut State Police.

Prior to 2000, a County Sheriff's Department existed for the purpose of executing judicial warrants, prisoner transport, court security, Bailiff, and county and state executions. These responsibilities have now been taken over by the Connecticut State Marshal System.

Some municipalities in the county still maintain a sheriff's department to fill the void of the abolishment of the county sheriff's department, such as the City of Shelton which has established the Shelton Sheriff's Department to carry out warrants in the city.

The geographic area of the county is served by the three separate judicial districts:

Stamford-Norwalk, and

Each judicial district has a superior court located, respectively, in Danbury, Stamford, and Bridgeport.

 Each judicial district has one or more geographical area courts ("GA"'s), subdivisions of the judicial districts that handle lesser cases such as criminal misdemeanors, small claims, traffic violations, and other civil actions.

Fire protection in the county is provided by the towns. Several towns also have fire districts that provide services to a section of the town.

Education in the county is usually provided by the town governments.

The exceptions are the towns of Redding and Easton, which joined together to form a regional school district (Region 9).

Fairfield County has a low crime index of 2050.2 (per 100,000 citizens) as well as a murder closure rate of over 70%.

Several Governmental agencies, as well as private security contractors, have made note of Fairfield's low crime rates and the County currently has 6 cities and towns with a percentile safety index of 90% or higher compared to the rest of the continental United States (based on violent and property crimes).[27]

In the late 1960s and early 1970s corporations began moving their headquarters to Fairfield County from Manhattan.

The trend permanently decentralized big business in the New York region.

During the 1980s many buyouts and reorganizations and an economic recession lead to companies vacating much of the sub-urban office space in Fairfield County.

In 1992 Fairfield County had the headquarters of over 25 major multinational corporations, giving it the third largest concentration of those companies in the United States after New York City and Chicago.[28]

Recently, Fairfield County has been described as a "hedge fund ghetto" due to the large concentration of investment management firms in the area, most notably Bridgewater Associates (one of the world's largest hedge fund companies), Aladdin Capital Management and Point72 Asset Management.
Bridgeport Hospital
Danbury Hospital
Greenwich Hospital
Norwalk Hospital
St. Vincent's Medical Center (Bridgeport) in Bridgeport
Stamford Hospital

With Interstate 95 and the Merritt Park Way increasingly clogged with traffic, state officials are looking toward mass transit to ease the county's major thoroughfares' traffic burden.

New office buildings are being concentrated near railroad stations in Stamford, Bridgeport and other municipalities in the county to allow for more rail commuting.

Proximity to Stamford's "Metro-North" train station was cited by the Royal Bank of Scotland as a key reason for locating its new U.S. headquarters building in downtown Stamford; construction on the office tower started in late 2006.

Within Fairfield County there are two regional airports: Igor I. Sikorsky Memorial Airport in Stratford and the Danbury Municipal Airport in Danbury.

The county is also served by larger airports such as:

Bradley International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport
LaGuardia Airport
Newark Liberty International Airport
Tweed New Haven-East Haven Regional Airport, and
Westchester County Airport.

Connecticut Transit's Stamford division runs local and inter-city buses to the southern part of the county.

The Norwalk Transit District serves the Norwalk area in the southern central portion of the county.

The Greater Bridgeport Transit Authority serves Bridgeport and eastern Fairfield County; and the Housatonic Area Regional Transit agency serves Danbury and the northern portions of the county.

The Bridgeport and Port Jefferson Ferry carries passengers and cars from Bridgeport to Port Jefferson, New York across Long Island Sound.

Ferry lines in and out of Stamford are also in development.

Commuter Rail is perhaps Fairfield County's most important transportation artery, as it allows its residents an efficient ride to Grand Central Terminal in New York City.

Service is provided on "Metro-North"'s New Haven Line, and every town on the shoreline has at least one station.

Connecting lines bring service to New Canaan from Stamford on the New Canaan Branch, and to Danbury from South Norwalk on the Danbury Branch.


Many trains run express from New York to Stamford, making it an easy 45-minute ride.


In the 2005 and 2006 sessions of the Legislature, massive appropriations were made to buy replacements for the 343 rail cars for the Metro-North New Haven Line and branch lines.

The approximately 30-year-old cars will be replaced with new cars at a rate of ten per month starting in 2010.[30]

Bridgeport and Stamford are also served by Amtrak, and both cities see a significant number of boardings on the "Regional North-East Route" (Boston to Newport News, VA).

This route also serves other Amtrak stations in Connecticut, including New Haven, New London, and Mystic.

U.S. 1 (or Boston Post Road) is the oldest east-west route in the county, running through all of its shore0line cities and towns.

Known by various names along its length, most commonly "Boston Post Road" or simply "Post Road", it gradually gains latitude from west to east.

Thus U.S. 1 west is officially designated "South" and east is "North".

Though contiguous, U.S.1 changes name by locality.

In Greenwich it is

"Putnam Avenue".

In Stamford it becomes

"Main Street"


"Tresser Boulevard".

In Darien it is Boston Post Road or "the Post Road".

In Norwalk it is

"The Connecticut Avenue"

in the west,

"Van Zant Street", 
"Cross Street", and
"North Avenue" in the center, and
"Westport Avenue"in the east.

In Westport, it is

"Post Road West"

from the Norwalk town line until the Saugatuck River and then it becomes

"Post Road East"

until Fairfield. In Fairfield it is again Boston Post Road or "the Post Road".

In Bridgeport it follows

"Kings Highway" in the west,
"North Avenue"in the center, and
"Boston Avenue"

in the east. Finally, it becomes

"Barnum Avenue"

in Stratford.

The western portions of Interstate 95 in Connecticut are known as the Connecticut Turnpike or the Gov. John Davis Lodge Turnpike in Fairfield County and it crosses the state approximately parallel to U.S. Route 1.

The road is most commonly referred to as "I-95".

The highway is six lanes (sometimes eight lanes) throughout the county.

It was completed in 1958 and is often clogged with traffic particularly during morning and evening rush hours.

With the cost of land so high along The (obscenely called) Gold Coast, state lawmakers say they don't consider widening the highway to be fiscally feasible, although occasional stretches between entrances and nearby exits are now sometimes connected with a fourth "operational improvement" lane (for instance, westbound between the Exit 10 interchange in Darien and Exit 8 in Stamford).

Expect similar added lanes in Darien and elsewhere in the Fairfield County portion of the highway in the future, lawmakers and state Department of Transportation officials say.

The Merritt Parkway, also known as "The Merritt" or Connecticut Route 15, is a truck-free scenic parkway that runs through the county parallel and generally several miles north of Interstate 95.

 It begins at the New York state line where it is the Hutchinson River Parkway and terminates on the Igor I. Sikorsky Memorial Bridge where it becomes "The Wilbur Cross Parkway" at "The New Haven County" line.

The interchange between the Merritt Parkway and Route 7 in Norwalk was completed around the year 2000.

 The project was held up in a law-suit won by preservationists concerned about the historic Merritt Parkway bridges.

It is now exit 39 off the Merritt, and exit 15 off I-95.

The parkway is a National Scenic Byway and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Interstate 84, which runs through Danbury, is scheduled to be widened to a six-lane highway at all points between Danbury and Waterbury.

State officials say they hope the widening will not only benefit drivers regularly on the route but also entice some cars from the more crowded Interstate 95, which is roughly parallel to it.

Heavier trucks are unlikely to use Interstate 84 more often, however, because the route is much hillier than I-95 according to a state Department of Transportation official.

With its southern terminus at Interstate 95 in central Norwalk, U.S. Route 7 heads north through Wilton, Ridgefield, and Danbury to points north. In Danbury and almost all of Norwalk, the route is a highway (known as "Super 7" in the Danbury area or "The Connector" in Norwalk) but it becomes a four-lane road just south of the Wilton-Norwalk border and up to Danbury.

There is significant opposition to making the route a limited access highway for the entire length by residents of Wilton and Ridgefield.

As a compromise between freeway supporters and opponents, the Connecticut Department of Transportation is upgrading the existing 2-lane section to 4 lanes, with a median in some locations. The state is also bypassing the existing 2-lane Route 7 around Brookfield with a freeway, where town officials have long supported an expressway to divert traffic away from the town center.

Route 8 terminates in downtown Bridgeport from I-95 with Connecticut Route 25 and goes north. It splits from Connecticut Route 25 at the Bridgeport—Trumbull town line and continues north into southeastern Trumbull and Shelton, then beyond the county through some of towns of the Naugatuck River Valley to Waterbury and beyond. Construction of the route provided some impetus for the creation of office parks in Shelton and home construction there and in other parts of The Valley.

Route 25 Starts in downtown Bridgeport from I 95 with Route 8 and goes north. It splits from Connecticut Route 8 at the Bridgeport—Trumbull town line and continues into Trumbull. The limited access divided expressway ends in northern Trumbull, but Route 25 continues into Monroe, Newtown, and Brookfield

Three minor league teams call Fairfield County their home: the Danbury Whalers (Federal Hockey League), the Class A affiliate of the Elmira Jackals; the Bridgeport Bluefish in baseball's independent Atlantic League; and the Bridgeport Sound Tigers, who are the New York Islanders' American Hockey League affiliate.
Villages are named localities within towns, but have no separate corporate existence from the towns they are in.

Bethel (town)
Stony Hill
Bridgeport (city, former county seat)
Black Rock
Grover Hill
P.t. Barnum(P.T.)
East End
East Side
Lake Forest
Little Italy
Mill Hill
North Bridgeport
North End
Trumbull Gardens (Terrace)
Ox Hill
South End
Marina Village
University of Bridgeport Campus
Seaside Park
Steel Point
West Side
Brookfield (town)
Mill Plain
Little Brazil
Darien (town)
Darien (Downtown)
Noroton Heights
Sport Hill
Fairfield Center (Downtown)
Greenfield Hill
Tunxis Hill
Greenwich Downtown
Cos Cob
Sound Beach
Old Greenwich
Back Country
Round Hill
Belle Haven
Monroe (town)
Monroe Center
Upper Stepney
New Canaan (town)
New Canaan Center
Silvermine (part)
New Fairfield (town)
Bigelow Corners
Candlewood Corners
Newtown (town)
Sandy Hook
Newtown (incorporated borough)
Norwalk (city)
Central Norwalk (Downtown)
Cranbury (Norwalk)
East Norwalk
Silvermine (part)
South Norwalk (SoNo)
Spring Hill
Wall Street
West Norwalk
Redding (town)
Georgetown (part)
Redding Ridge
West Redding
Five Points
Ridgefield (town)
Shelton (city)
White Hills
Pine Rock Park
Long Hill
Sherman (town)
Stamford (city)
The Cove
North Stamford
Long Ridge
East Side
Harbor Point
Shippan Point
Bulls Head
South End
Turn of River
West Side
Richmond Hill
Stratford (town)
Stratford Center
Hawley Lane
Paradise Green
Success Hill
Trumbull (town)
Chestnut Hill
Daniels Farm
Long Hill
Trumbull Center
Weston (town)
Georgetown (part)
Westport (Town)
Greens Farms
Wilton (town)
Georgetown (most)
Silvermine (part)

All communities in the county are in the area code 203/area code 475 overlay except for the town of Sherman which is in area code 860 and part of the geographical New Milford telephone exchange.
See also[edit]
Portal icon Connecticut portal
Historical U.S. Census Totals for Fairfield County, Connecticut
List of Mountains and Summits in Fairfield County, Connecticut
List of Registered Historic Places in Fairfield County, Connecticut

^ Jump up to: a b "State & County QuickFacts - Fairfield County, Connecticut". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
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^ Jump up to: a b "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012" (CSV). 2012 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
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Jump up ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
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Jump up ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
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Jump up ^ "SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
Jump up ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
Jump up ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
Jump up ^ Connecticut Department of Public Safety "
Jump up ^ Safe Choice Private Security Firm "
Jump up ^ Lueck, Thomas J. "Vacated Corporate Headquarters Scatter the Suburban Landscape." The New York Times. December 7, 1992. A1, New York Edition. Retrieved on January 5, 2009.
Jump up ^ "CTTransit - Connecting the Community". Retrieved 2008-06-10.
Jump up ^ Governor Rell: Governor Rell: New Rail Car Design Gets Positive Reviews from Public. Ct.gov (2008-10-16). Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
Jump up ^ "National Register of Historical Places - CONNECTICUT (CT), Fairfield County". National Park Service and United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2008-06-24.
External links[edit]
Outdated list of County Government Agencies in Connecticut with reference to the Sheriff's Department
State-Designated Informative County Website
Major media in the county[edit]
Fairfield County Business Journal
Fairfield County Weekly's official website

Daily newspapers covering the county[edit]
Published within the county[edit]

The Advocate of Stamford - Stamford edition, published by Southern Connecticut Newspapers Inc., a subsidiary of the Tribune Company.
The Advocate of Stamford - Norwalk edition
Connecticut Post, owned by Media General Group, published in Bridgeport.
Greenwich Time, published by Southern Connecticut Newspapers Inc., a subsidiary of the Tribune Company.
The Hour (registration required), controlled by a trust under the ultimate authority of Norwalk Probate Court.
The News-Times of Danbury, owned by Ottaway Newspapers, a subsidiary of Dow Jones.
The Fairfield County Business Journal, published by Westfair Communications Inc.
The Newtown Bee published in the heart of Newtown.
Published outside the county[edit]
The Hartford Courant (occasionally covers Fairfield County; owned by the Tribune Company).
New York Daily News (occasionally covers Fairfield County).
New York Post (occasionally covers Fairfield County)
New York Times (occasionally covers Fairfield County).
Spanish language newspapers[edit]
El Sol News, countywide, based in Stamford.
El Canillita, distributed across southwestern Connecticut.
Pluma Libre, distributed across southwestern Connecticut.
Hyperlocal coverage[edit]
The Daily Voice
Broadcast media and cable television[edit]
News 12 Connecticut has studios in Norwalk and covers Fairfield County as well as state wide news from Hartford http://www.news12.com/CT.

Housatonic Community College in Bridgeport http://www.hctc.commnet.edu/index.asp
University of Bridgeport in Bridgeport http://www.bridgeport.edu/pages/1.asp
University of Connecticut Stamford campus http://www.stamford.uconn.edu/
Fairfield University in Fairfield http://www.fairfield.edu/
Norwalk Community College http://www.ncc.commnet.edu/default.asp
St. Vincent's College in Bridgeport http://www.stvincentscollege.edu/
Sacred Heart University in Fairfield http://www.sacredheart.edu/
Western Connecticut State University in Danbury http://www.wcsu.edu/

Culture and the arts[edit]
Fine Arts[edit]
Franklin Street Works located in the downtown area of Stamford, Connecticut.
The Housatonic Museum of Art located at Housatonic Community College in Bridgeport, Connecticut.

Music: orchestras in the county[edit]

Greater Bridgeport Symphony. Founded in 1945, its concerts are held at Klein Memorial Auditorium in Bridgeport. The orchestra offers a free outdoors pops concert in the summer at Fairfield University. Gustav Meier has been with the GBSO for 41 years.

The Connecticut Grand Opera is a not-for-profit, professional opera company founded in 1993 and based in Stamford, where it performs at the Palace Theatre.

On its web site, the CGO claims to offer "the most ambitious opera season of any company between New York and Boston."

Danbury Symphony Orchestra. This orchestra does not have its own Web site and only part of a web page at the Danbury Music Center web site is devoted to it.

Greenwich Symphony Orchestra. Begun in 1958 as the Greenwich Philharmonia, the orchestra has grown to 90 members who perform at the Dickerman Hollister Auditorium at Greenwich High School. It also performs a pops concert in the summer. David Gilbert has been music director and conductor since 1975.

Norwalk Symphony Orchestra. Its concerts take place in a graceful, large "Norwalk Concert Hall" auditorium of Norwalk City Hall. Founded in 1939, the NSO remained primarily a community orchestra of volunteers. In 1956, the Norwalk Youth Symphony was created, and younger musicians often were invited to be part of the orchestra. Diane Wittry has been music director and conductor since 2002. For the past eight years she has held the same title at the Allentown Symphony Orchestra in Pennsylvania.
Ridgefield Symphony Orchestra Annually, the RSO presents four subscription concerts at the Anne S. Richardson Auditorium at Ridgefield High School, and two chamber music concerts at the Ridgefield Playhouse for the Performing Arts (only one is scheduled in the 2006–07 season), along with an annual "family concert" and performances in Ridgefield schools.
Stamford Symphony Orchestra The SSO typically gives five pairs of classical concerts and three pops concerts a season at the 1,586-seat Palace Theatre. It also performs a concert for elementary school students and a family concert series.
Western Connecticut Youth Orchestra, a not-for-profit organization providing talented young musicians in the Fairfield County and Upper Westchester County areas with a classical symphony experience.
Other music and arts events[edit]

The Barnum Festival has been held in the Spring in Bridgeport since 1949 to raise money for charity.

The Connecticut Film Festival is held in the Spring in Danbury.

The Fairfield County Free Style Championships are generally held once a semester on the campus of Sacred Heart University.

This event showcases the best freestyle dancers and rappers that live, work, or go to school in Fairfield County. The event is sponsored by the SHU Freestyle Club.

The Gathering of the Vibes musical event has been held in Bridgeport's Seaside Park in 1999, 2000, 2007, and again in 2008.

Musicals at Richter, held every summer in Danbury, is Connecticut's longest running outdoor theater

The Norwalk Oyster Festival is an annual fair in the city of Norwalk that features craft vendors and live music performances. The festival takes place on the first weekend after Labor Day in Veterans Park, near Long Island Sound.
History and culture links[edit]
Tourism links[edit]

Coastal Fairfield County Convention and Visitors Bureau


Norwalk, Bridgeport, and Shelton and the towns of Greenwich, Darien, New Canaan, Wilton, Westport, Weston, Fairfield, Easton, Monroe, Stratford, and Trumbull.
Northwest Connecticut Convention and Visitors Bureau, serves Litchfield County and communities in northern Fairfield County. In Fairfield County it serves Ridgefield, Redding, Newtown, Bethel, Brookfield, Danbury, Sherman, and New Fairfield.
County business associations and institutions[edit]
Business Council of Fairfield County
Dutchess County, New York Litchfield County
Putnam County, New York  New Haven County
   Fairfield County, Connecticut   

Westchester County, New York Long Island Sound
Nassau County, New York / Suffolk County, New York
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Municipalities and communities of Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States
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 State of Connecticut
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New York metropolitan area
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Radio stations in the Bridgeport, Connecticut market
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Radio stations in the Stamford–Norwalk, Connecticut market
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Radio stations in the Danbury, Connecticut market
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Law enforcement agencies in Fairfield County, Connecticut
Coordinates: 41.23°N 73.37°W
Categories: Connecticut countiesFairfield County, Connecticut1666 establishments in Connecticut1960 disestablishments in ConnecticutCounties in the New York metropolitan areaPopulated places established in 1666

The Housatonic, Connecticut, New England.


The river's name is derived from the Mohican phrase "usi-a-di-en-uk", translated as "beyond the mountain place". The Housatonic Valley Association. Cornwall Bridge, CT. "History of the Housatonic River."

Country USA
States Connecticut.
Counties Fairfield, CT, New Haven, CT,
 - left East Branch Housatonic River, Konkapot River, Blackberry River, Shepaug River, Pomperaug River, Naugatuck River
 - right West Branch Housatonic River, Williams River, Green River, Salmon Creek, Ten Mile River, Still River
City Pittsfield, MA
Source Confluence of West and East Branches Housatonic River
 - location Pittsfield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA
 - elevation 959 ft (292 m)
 - coordinates 42°26′01″N 073°15′03″W [1]
Mouth Long Island Sound
 - location Milford, New Haven County, Connecticut, USA
 - elevation 0 ft (0 m)
 - coordinates 41°10′09″N 073°06′30″WCoordinates: 41°10′09″N 073°06′30″W [1]
Length 139 mi (224 km)
Basin 1,948 sq mi (5,045 km2)
Discharge for Stratford/Milford, CT
 - average 4,700 cu ft/s (133 m3/s)
 - max 48,600 cu ft/s (1,376 m3/s)
 - min 54 cu ft/s (2 m3/s)
Discharge elsewhere (average)
 - Great Barrington, MA 767 cu ft/s (22 m3/s)

The view of Benedict's cottage (designed in "Italiante" style by Hastings) was best from the water, featuring an antique Roman pergola, laced in honeysuckle, roses, and grape!


Typically, Benedict's 'cottage' in Greenwich, designed by his son-in-law, Hastings, was "of Italian Renaissance"!


Hastings (he was, after all his son-in-law) designed Benedict's Indian Harbour's estate!


Benedict purchased Orchard Point Inn, on the water -- Greenwich, Connecticut.


Benedict bought and then levelled all the fishermen's houses surrounding his 'cottage' "to improve the landscape," he said.


Benedict owned two yachts: the ONEIDA and the ONEIDA ("I couldn't think of a better name," he would say -- and he did say).


E. C. Benedict succeeded Vanderbilt as commodore of the yacht club in Oyster Bay; Benedict's first yacht was the ONEIDA -- called after Oneida.


Boss Tweed's cottage became the Indian Harbour yacht clubhouse


E. C. Benedict, who bought Tweed's cottage on Round Island, was a member of six yacht clubs in Long Island Sound!


THE AMERICUS CLUB, Round Island, Greenwich, Connecticut -- founded by Tweed "The Boss".


Mr. Tweed at Greenwich's Round Island -- which belonged to Mr. Oliver Mead.


Indian Harbour, Greenwich, Connecticut


One of the first 'gentlemen' (rather than 'farmers') to re-locate in Greenwhich, Connecticut, was E. C. Benedict, whose 'cottage' was on the shore of Conyers Farm.


One of Connecticut's oldest yacht clubs opened at Riverside in 1888.


Another early stop in the Greenwich-Manhattan railway line was "Sound Beach" -- actually the old part of Greenwich!


It was Lockwood who requested the Greenwhich-Manhattan train stopped at Riverside!


Another earlier Greenwich-Manhattan commuter was Bruce, of the Bruce Museum fame!


The first train between Greenwich, Connecticut, and Manhattan ran in 1848: Mr. Mead was one of the passengers!


When the railway between Manhattan and Stamford, Connecticut, opened, the first-class ticket was $ 0.65!


In 1825, Stamford Harbour welcomed its first steamboat, the OLIVER WOLCOTT


The Boston Post Road, incredibly useful in Fairfield County


Rings End Bridge, Darien


Greenwich, Connecticut


The community known as "Horseneck" extended to the west of the Byram.

Darien, not Bellville


Everybody thought Bell would call his settlement "Bellville," but since he was a sailor, he chose Darien instead!

Darien, Connecticut


Darien did not receive its charter until 1820.

South-Western Coastal Connecticut


Originally, the Greenwich-Stamford border was the Mianus. Stamford extended to the Five-Mile River, where Norwalk begins.

Greenwich, Connecticut


Daniel Patrick and Robert Feake purchased that land that would be Old Greenwich from the Native Americans. This included all the land between the Stamford border and the Asamuck stream.

Saturday, August 29, 2015

Whalers' Point Path, East Haven -- Observation Platform, East Haven


Whalers' Point Observation Platform, East Haven


South End Point, intersection of Caroline Road and Ellis Road, East Haven


Morgan Terrace and Morgan Point, East Haven


Morgan Avenue, East Haven


East Haven Old Town Highway, East Haven


Shell Beach Road, East Haven


Morris Creek Nature Reserve, East Haven

The East Side of New Haven Harbour: Morris Cove (Solitary Cove), the Annex (the Indian Reservation), South End, and Waterside: 1644 to 1868.


The East Side of New Haven HarborMorris Cove (Solitary Cove), the Annex (the Indian Reservation), South End & Waterside, 1644 to 1868

New England

New England

Shell Beach, Davenport's Eastwood Farms, Connecticut, New England, Long Island Sound


Shell Beach - East Haven Condos

Shell Beach, Davenport's Eastwood Farms, Long Island Sound, Connecticut, New England.


Shell Beach - East Haven Condos

The Housatonic


Long Island Sound: A Natural History


Friday, August 28, 2015

New England

Davenport's Eastwood Farms -- Matthews vi. i -- Moses Mansfield -- Jared Granniss --


During the reigns of James I and Charles I, kings of England, the puritans (as Bellini sings in his opera) were subjected to a destructive oppression, and a furious persecution for conscience sake.

And seeingy no end to their sufferings, projected settlements in the wilderness of America (a continent discovered by Amerigo Vespucci, hence the name), as a place of retreat for the Church of God, and where the salvation and freedom of themselves and of their posterity might be promoted and secured.

Hence large companies left their native land and crossed the Atlantic ocean.

Among them were persons of wealth, learning, and distinguished piety and eminence.

On the 26th July, 1637,

-- John Davenport,
-- Samuel Eaton
-- Teofilo Eaton
Edward Hopkins
Thomas Gregson,

and their company arrived at Boston.

They were invited to continue there, or in that vicinity.

 This proposal they rejected.

They were determined to settle a new "colony", or plantation, as they called it -- "south, where the weather is milder."

 Accordingly, in the fall of that year, Tefofilo Eaton and others explored the country along the sea-coast, west of The Connecticut River.

Teofilo Eaton finally fixed upon the Quinipiack River, as the place of their settlement.

On the 80th March, 1638, the whole company sailed from Boston.

In about two weeks arrived safe and sound at the place of their destination.

On the 18th April, the first Lord’s day after their arrival.

The people attended public worship under a large oak, and Davenport preached to them from Matth. vi. 1.

Soon after their arrival, they held a day of fasting and prayer at the close of which, they solemnly entered into a plantation covenant, binding themselves, that as in matters that concern the gathering and ordering of a Church, so also in all public, ofifces which concern civil order; as choice of magistrates and officers, making and repealing laws, dividing allotments of inheritance, and all things of like nature, they would all of them, be ordered by the rules which the scripture held forth to them.

By this covenant they were regulated the first year.

On the 24th Nov. 1638, Teofilo Eaton, John Davenport, and the other planters, made their first purchase of Momauguin, sachem of that part of the country, and his counsellors.

The colony promised to protect Momauguin and his Indians from their enemies, and that they should have sufficient planting ground between the harbour and Saybrook fort.

This ground was located in East-Haven, from the Old Ferry Mount or Red-Rock, to the Solitary Cove, on the west.

On the north, the road from the ferry to Stoney-River.

On the east, from the said road along the foot of Grave or Fort Hill and the road that runs from Bridge Swamp to the Solitary Cove.

The purchasers also gave the sachem and his counsellors coats of cloth, alchemy spoons, hatchets, hoes, knives, lmrringers, and scissors.

This contract was signed by Momauguin and his council on the one part, and John Davenport and Teofilo Eaton on the other part.

Thomas Stanton was the interpreter.

By the oppression of the Mohawks and Pequods, this tribe was then reduced to about 40 men.

On the 11th Dec. 1638, the plantation purchased another large tract, which lay principally north of the former purchase.

This was bought of Montowese, son of the great Sachem.

It was 10 miles long, north and south, and 13 miles in breadth.

It extended 8 miles EAST of the river Quinipiack, and 5 miles west of it.

For this tract they have coats, and allowed the Indians ground to plant, an liberty to hunt on it.

These purchases “included all the lands within the ancient limits of the towns of New Haven, Branford, and Wallingford, and almost the whole contained within the present limits of those
towns, and of the towns of East Haven, Woodbridge, Cheshire, Hamden and North Haven.

On the 4th June 1639, all the free planters of Quinipiack convened in a large barn of Newman’s, and formed their Constitution.

Sixty-three names were subscribed to it on that do ,' and about fifty more were added soon after.

Among tlie subscribers who settled in East Haven, or were concerned in that settlement, were

William Andrews
Jasper Crayne
Thomas Gregson
William Touttle or Tuttle
Garvis Boykim
John Potter
Matthew Moulthrop
Matthias Hitchcock
Edward Patterson.

To these were added

Thomas Morris and John Thompson.

On the 7th March, 1644, the colony constitution was revised and enlarged and then were added the names of:

Matthew Rowe
John Tuthill.

In July following:

Allin Ball
Edmund Tooly
Thomas Robinson, sen. and jun.
William Holt
Thomas Barnes,
Edward Hitchcock.

In August:

Peter Mallory
Nicholas Augur.

On the 4th April, 1654:

George Pardee
John Potter, jun.

In May:

Matthew Moulthrop, jun., were added.

Feb. 7, 1657, John Davenport, jun. Jonathan Tuthill, and John Thompson subscribed: May 1st, 1660, Nathaniel Boykim, and Thomas Tuttle.

Thomas Morris was admitted at free inhabitant 3d July, 1648
John Chedsey, 19th Feb. 1658
George Pardee, 16th June, 1662
 and Robert Augur in 1674.

The town was named New Haven in 1640.

The first division of lands was made within the town plat, and that vicinity, for home lots.

But several enterprising farmers turned their attention to the lands on the east side of the Quinipiack, and began to settle there, when the second division was made.

In 1689, Thomas Gregson petitioned for his second division at Solitary Cove, and on the 5th August, 1644, 133 ' acres were alottted to him at that place.

There Gregson placed his family—the first in East Haven.

The next year he was appointed agent for the colony to the Parliament in England, to obtain a patent. In 1647, Mr. Gregson, and Capt. Turner, and Mr. Lamberton, and five or six more of the principal inhabitants, sailed for England, in a ship of 150 tons ; and were all lost—Jane, the widow of Thomas Gregson, in 1677, gave a deed for 38 acres of the Cove farm to her dau hter Phebe, who had married Rev. John Whiting, 0f Hartgird, which he sold 18th July, 1678, to George Pardee. And the remainder of the farmwas sold to George Pardee, jun. soon after it was divided among the heirs, in 1716.
12 List of Falls, and value of Estates.

In 1640, lots were laid out on the East side the river.

The proportion for the second division was 20 acres of upland for lOOl. estate, and 2% acres for every poll in the family.

And on 4th Nov. 1642, the town voted that those who have their farms at the river called Stoney River (later the East Haven River), shall have liberty to make a sluice in the river for their own convenience.

Fifty acres of meadow on the east side, was granted to Rev. M r. Samuel Eaton, 29th Aug. 1640.

Benjaniin Linge and William Tuttle are allowed to have their meadow when Mr. Eaton hath his first 50 acres, viz. in the fresh Meadow towards Totokett, and Crayne is to have his also there.

Jasper Crayne had his lot and house on the east side of the green;

William Tuttle on the south side of the fresh meadows.

We cannot ascertain the spot where Benjamin Lingo built.

These were men of wealth, and much employed in public affairs.

Jasper Crayne sold his farm of 16 acres, to Matthew Moulthrop, 7th Sept. 1652, and removed to Totokett; and from thence his son Jasper removed to Newark, 1667.

Wlliam Tuttle had five sons, all of whom sold their patrimony and removed, except Joseph.

Some of William Tuttle's descendants (via Joseph Tuttle) still remain in the town.

Benjamin Linge died without children, and Dixwell, one of King Charles’ judges, married his widow.

In 1649, it was ordered that Mr. Davenport, pastor of the Church, shall have his meadow, and the upland for his second division, both together, on the East side of the East River, where himself shall choose, with all the conveniency the place can afford for a farm, together with the natural bounds of the place, whether creeks or otherwise.

He accordingly laid out a tract 0 land of about a mile square, and containing about 600 acres, above Dragon.

In 1650, Alling Ball became his farmer, and was exempted from militia service, while he continued in Mr. Davenport’s employment.

The following list of polls and estates, by which the first division was regulated, will show the relative wealth of some of those who first had their farms in this town:

John Davenport 3 polls £1000
William Tuttle 7 450
Jasper Crayne S 480
Thomas Gregson 6 600
Benjamin Linge 2 320
William Andrews 2 150
John Cooper 8 30
John Potter 4 25
Matthias Hitchcock 3 50
Matthew Moulthrop 1 10
Edward Patterson 1 40
Richard Berkley 4 20

In 1643, pieces of eight were reckoned at five shillings and eight pence.

Wampum, in 1640, was fixed at six for a enn .

Totokett being settled about this time, in 1649, a difficulty arose concerning the boundary between the two towns, which was committed to an arbitration, but it appears that the business was still unfinished in 1659.

In 1644, a bridge was built over Stoney River on the road to Totokett, by William Andrews, for which he charged the town of New Haven £8. 8. 9.

The ferry at Red-Rock, had been kept by Francis Brown.

But in 1650, George Pardee took it, and he was afterwards allowed to build a house there at his own expense.

And in 1670 the ferry farm was granted to him, which was left by him to his son George, and continues still in the possession of his descendants.

The rates of ferriage established in 1671, were as follows.

For a man and horse, Sixpence.

If the horse swam over, three pence.

Afterwards it was reduced to four pence,—and a footman, twopence.

In 1651, William Tuttle, and Benjamin Linge, and Matthew Moulthrop, obtained 14 acres of the fresh meadow.

They and the Governor had 20 acres of it.

John Potter and Ellis Mew, also obtained 20 acres of it.

In 1662, John Potter, obtained a piece of land upon which to set his blacksmith shop.

On Sept. 5, 1640, the General Court, at New Haven, made a grant of Totokett to Mr. Samuel Eaton,brother of Governor Eaton, upon the condition of his procuring a number of his friends to make a settlement in that tract of country.

Samuel Eaton failed in fulfilling the conditions.

About three years after, the subject was acted upon thus.

Totokett, a place fit for a. small plantation, betwixt New-Haven and Guilford, and purchased from the Indians was granted to Swayne and some others in Wethersfield, they repaying the charges, which are betwixt £12 and 13, and joining in one ju. I'isdiction with New Haven and the forenamed plantations, upon the same fundamental agreement settled in Oct. 1643, which they duly considering accepted.”

The settlement began in 1644. [NfHaven records}

About the same time, John Tuttle, jun. sold to him his house and home lot—it was the same on which Josiah Bradley lived

And about the same time William Luddington died, and his widow bought of John Tuttle, jun. land at Stoney River, which was a part of his patrimony.

John Cooper came to Stoney River about the time of the building of the Iron works, of which he appears to have been the agent and overseer.

In 1662, Samuel Heminway (of "Hemingway Avenue" fame) appeared and obtained land for a home lot, which was not far from the furnace. 

Thomas Barnes bought of John Harriman south of Muddy Rver, 1662—and in 1664, petitioned the town for a piece of land at the Iron works, for Ralph Russell, which, by the advice of the townsmen was ranted.

That lot was later occupied by Thomas Barnes.

John Russel, his brother, come ere about the same time, but we cannot ascertain the spot he located.

William Fowler owned land on the east side, and in 1676 be confirmed by deed to John Austin, land, that he had previously bought of widow Jones.

Anna, widow of WVilliam Andrews, sold to Matthew Moulthrop, sen. a piece of land at "Fowler’s Cove" in 1667.

This name, and that of "Fowler’s Creek", were both derived from William Fowler, who owned land or meadow adjacent to both places.

The purchase and settlement of the great neck, or South End, appears next in order.

VVilham Andrews, John Cooper, Sergt. Richard Berkley, Isaac Whitehead, and Nathaniel Merriman, petitioned for land beyond Solitary Cove, in 1645, but their petition was not granted.

In 1649, W'illiam Andrews alone applied for the same tract, but failed.

In 165I, Richard Berkley renewed the application for himself.

But the town refused to grant him the land, because other men had also applied for it.

On the 8d Dec. 1651, the application was again renewed, and it was finally argued and ordered that, William Andrews, Richard Berkley, Matthias Hitchcock, Edward Patterson, and Edward Hitchcock, shall have the neck of land by the sea side, beyond the Cove, and all the meadows belonging to it below the Island with a rock upon it.

They are to have the neck entire to themselves by paying to the town one penny an acre for 500 acres, for every rate ; and for their meadows as other men do.

They are to settle there.

' Purchase of South-end. 16 and dwell upon it at spring next, and improve it by way of farmingfor getting corn, and breeding of Cattle, and not to dispose of it. by letting or selling, without the Town’s consent.

And if they, or an of them should remove out of the plantation within five years, they are to leave the lands to the Town, (if they will accept it) they paying for improvements as it is then worth, being appraised bv indi 'erent men.

And if their cattle do damage by eating the meadows the farmers now have at Stoney River, it  is agreed, (Mr. Linge and Mr. Tuttle being present) that a fence shall be made to secure it from their cattle, which is to be made and maintained betwixt them ; that is, the farmers on the neck half, and the farmers at Stoney River, who are concerned in it the other half.

Further the farmers upon the neck promise (that seeing they have the neck entire to themselves) if any of their cattle get out of the pasture without the neck, they will make a fence to keep them in.

The taxes laid upon this land seem to have constituted a kind of rent, and being considered by the tenants as very burdensome, they petitioned for relief, but could obtain no abatement.

William Andrews sold his share in the East Haven Neck to James Denison and John Asbill, 1663.

John Asbill sold his part to J. Denison, 1689.

Thomas Smith married the daughter and only child of Edward Patterson and so became possessor of his share.

In 1662, Richard Berkley sold his share to Thomas Harrison and the same year, Harrison sold his share at South End and land at Muddy River, to John Thompson (of "Thompson Street" fame).

The Hitchcock family sold their part, and all died or removed from East Haven.

The South End men still feeling uncomfortable under their one-penny tax.

On the 3d May 1689, Thomas Smith, James Denison, Eliakim Hitchcock and John Thompson, proposed to the town a final payment, instead of the yearly rent for their lands, which was referred to the towns-men.

On the 4th November, in pursuance of the town order made in May last, the towns-men having treated with the five South End men about the East Haven Neck of land, for which they were to pay £225 in money, declared that the said men are willing to pay £15 in money to the town, to clear off the incumbrance, and the early payment aforesaid; the town makingover the said East Haven Neck otpiand by their grant, or deed in writing to them the said five men, their heirs and ass' 5 forever according to law, and with mention of full boun ary thereon.

The town after some debate voted their acce tance of said £ 15 in money tendered b the said South End men, to be by them, or their order, paid' to Mr. Baker of Boston, towards payment for the bell bou ht of said Baker, some time in May next.

And they or ered that any two of the townsmen are appointed to sign and seal a deed or deeds to the South End men, for settlement of right and title to them accordingly.

Tradition states, that this bell is the same now used in the Court House in New-Haven.

According to this agreement and vote of the town, on the 7th Dec. 1689, Moses Mansfield and Abraham Dickerman, two of the townsmen of New Haven, gave a deed, for the consideration of £15 in money, to John Thompson, Thomas Smith, James Denison, Eliakim Hitchcock, and Nathaniel Hitchcock bounded on the south and south west by Long Island Sound, and on the east with Stoney river, from the mouth of it to a stake by the side of the said river, with a heap of stones at it -- hence its name.

And from thence to a white oak, marked with "N. H." and stones at the root.

And thence westerly-bounded by the meadows of John Russell, widow Mew, William Luddington, John Austin, Matthew Moulthrop, and John Potter, into the middle of huckleberry swamp, and so unto Fowler’s meadow westerly, and so along by the meadows of the Hartford suburbs quarter, and so unto the east end of a pond by the beach called the Black Pond.”-N. H. Rec.

On the 16th March, 1671, Capt. Thomas Morris, a shipbuilder, bought the little neck.

The Neck had Gregson’s farm on the north and the meadows along Fowler’s Creek on the east.

Capt. Morris's design was to carry on ship building, the timber there being very suitable for that purpose. But two years afterwards death put an end to all his purposes.

The lots about "The Dragon's Point", between the Davenport and Ferry farms, were laid out, but lay dormant several years.

The transaction relative to that subject stands thus on record.

13th Feb. 1670. the town by vote granted that those that have land on the east side about The Dragon's point shall have libert to lay their lots together, and to begin at which end they p case.

And the townsmen are hereby appointed to settle it with them, both in respect to convenient highways, and also how far their lots shall run in length from the river.

In 1703 these lots were occupied.

Next to the Brown farm, Matthew Rowe, jun. had his farm.

Alling Ball obtained a farm north of the Davenport farm.

Eleazar Morris, jun. settled on the hill east of the Ball farm.

 John Austin appears on record in 1673; and six years after obtained a piece of land overflowed by the Forge pond.

He built on the north side of the road, west of the Green.

In 1683 Isaac Bradley came into the village from Branford, and bought a building lot next to the river,

Of sergt John Potter, and north of his house. He was a. carpenter.

In 1681 deacon John Chedsey, a tanner and Shoemaker, settled on the north side of the Green, on three square lot of about three acres, between John Potter and John Austin.

And afterwards ten acres were granted him by the village, on the west side of the fresh meadows, which ever since has been known by the name of Chedsey’s field, and Chedsey’s hill.

In March 1683 Chedsey proposed to the village to have a third division of land among us equal to ten heads and £100 estate, which he doth apprehend to be 60 acres; and for the future he will be engaged to ay towards the expenses of the village after the rate of) £200 rateable estate, until his estate shall amount to £200, and then to rise as his estate shall rise.

In 1688 the village made a third division of land ; and assed the following order, viz.: “ Thomas Pinion, Robert awson, William Roberts, Joseph Abbot, and James Tailor, on their motion to the village, are to have no third division with the rest of the inhabitants; but shall have their land next to that land we obtained from Branford, as follows.

Thomas Pinion, Robert Dawson and William Roberts, being married men, shall have 30 acres each man.

J oseph Abbott and James Tailor shall have 20 acres each man, provided each of the aforesaid five men do build upon the said land a tenantable house within three years of the present date.

The lots granted by the village to the five men above-mentioned, were confirmed by a town vote of New-Haven.

The lots lay on "Foxon’s Farms", north and south, across the river, and the road as it now runs.

That plain was called "Foxon’a farms" from the circumstance of its being the residence of an Indian sagamore, named "Foxon" -- so it has nothing to do with Foxwoods!

It is on record of the date of 1644, the people of Branford complained that Foxon's Indians set traps in the cattle’s paths and a marshall was sent from ew-Haven to warn Uncas, or his brother, or Foxon, to come and speak to the Governor about it.

 In 1658 the inhabitants of the village petitioned the town, that a line might be run from the rear corner of Davenport’s Eastwood farm towards the town to Foxon’s Weekwam, and so Stoney River be their bounds on the east from which it appears that the Indian Foxon’s residence was on the ‘
lain, not far from the river.

From an inspection of a number of other documents, we find that "Foxon’s farms"  was on the plain between the house of Jared Grannis and Chedsey, and the river and the swamps at the foot of the hill north and west.

Thomas Goodsell, from Branford, was admitted an inhabitant of New Haven in April, 1692, and soon after built the house now occupied by the widow and son of Azariah Bradley.

It is the oldest house in East Haven.
Edmund Tooley built on the lot south of sergt. John Potter.

Edward Vickar lived east of the furnace dam.

William Luddington, jun. lived on the southeast corner of the road opposite the pumpkin lot, and the place was afterwards owned by Gideon Potter and by Isaac Mallor.

Samuel Thompson built on the corner lot west of the present stone meetinghouse on High Street.

It is probable that his father, John Thompson, lived there before him.

Thomas Robinson’s house was opposite the present stone meetinghouse on High Street, on the south side of the road.

Samuel Russel lived on the lot now owned bv Thomas Barnes.

John Russell built west of Mullen hill.

The lot of Matthew Moulthrop, the third, is now in the session of the Shepard family.

John Luddington was coated in bridge swamp, and his son James succeeded him, and he sold to Jedediah Andrews.

Thomas Smith, jun. built near where John Forbes livedm and his son Thomas built between him and Capt. John Russel’s.

We shall now proceed to take a view of the boundaries of the town. 

The dividing line between New Haven and Branford had not been de niter ascertained and fixed at
the time New-Haven sold Totokett ; which left much room for uneasiness and altercation.

It is a prevailing tradition, and supported too by collateral records, that the original line ran along the east side of Branford hills.

And it appears from the petition of the village to New-Haven, and the grant of New-Haven to the village in 1679, and the subsequent grant b Branford, of the half mile, to the village; that Branfor actually held in possession more land, than was contained in the original purchase from New-Haven in 1644, and that was not paid for. Branford claimed as far as Lake Saltonstall.

So early as 1649 a difficulty on this subject appeared, which was submitted to arbitration, but without efi'ect. In 1656 New-Haven made a grant of the Furnace farm to the Iron company, and 12 acres to the collier; both within the line claimed by Branford, though Branford was treated as having some interest in the Iron works.

About the year 1660 Branford proposed to N ew-Haven to have the line run between them. And after a long delay the business was acted upon in the following manner, as appears from the Colony records, Hartford, l4th May, 1674.

“ This Court ordereth that the agreement between NewHaven and Milford, Branfoi‘d and Wallingford, about their bounds, be recorded with the records of the Court, and is as followeth.”
“ Whereas there has been a difference between the inhabitants of New-Haven and the inhabitants of Branford about the dividin bounds between each plantation, and the inhabitants of Ngew-Haven aforesaid having chosen and empowered James Bishop, jun. Thomas Munson', William Andrews, John Mosse, and John Cooper, senr. on their part, and the inhabitants of Branford aforesaid having chosen and empowered Mr. John Wilford, Thomas Blackley, Michael Tayntor, Thomas Harrison and Samuel Ward on their part, to issue the sayd difference in reference to the sayd bounds, the sayd persons abovenamed (excepting John Cooper, in whose roome Mr. William Tuttle was desired by the authority of New-Haven? being mett together this fifth day of October 1669, and a fu l debate and consideration of the case for the preserving of love and peace and the preventingof trouble for the future between them that have hitherto been loving neighbours, have condescended so far each to other as to agree'about the premises as followeth, .viz.

That from the river formerly called in an agreement Tapamshashack (with the exception of meadows therein expressed) the great pond at the head of the Furnace shall be the bounds so far as it
oes; and from the head of the said pond that a straight line
e drawn to the east end of a Hassukque meadow out of which a brooke called Hercules brooke runnes into muddye river, and from the east end of the sayd meadowe to runn a north lyne, with the just variation according to the country unto the end of the = bounds of Branford aforesayd, that is, ten miles from the sea according to the order of the Gen— eral Assembly. In testimonie whereof we have set too our hands the day and year above written.
John Wilford Samuel Bishop
Tho: Blackley Thomas Munson
Michael Tayntor William Andrews
Tho: Harrison “'illiam Tuttell
Samuel Warde "

In another instrumemt of a later date the bounds are thus described.

Whereas the General Court of Connecticut Colony, have formerly granted unto proprietors, inhabitants of the town of New-Haven in the sayd Colony, all those lands both meadows and uplands with all their appurtenances within these abutments following, viz. on the sea or sound; on the south, from the mouth of Oyster river, to the mouth of Scotch Cap, or Stoney River, untill it come to the brooke called Tappunshaske (only in that line is not included the meadow that is laid out to New-Haven proprietors, on the east side the sayd river according to former a reement with Branford) and so the sayd brooke is the boun s to the FurnaCe dam, and thence the great pond to the head of it, and thence a line eastward halt a mile to a white oak, marked with H. T. B. and stones laid at the foot of it.”

' Colony Records, entered 7th Jan._1685.

Branford bounds are mentioned in another instrument, of alater date, after the half mile was set off. “Upon the sea on the south, and on the New Haven bounds on the west, at Scotch Cap, or Stoney River, until it comes to the brook Tappanshasick (only in that line is not included the meadow, which is laid out to proprietors on the east side of the said River, and hath been agreed upon,) and that sayld brooke is the bounds to the Furnace dam, and thencet egreat pond to the head of it, and thence a line eastward half a mile to astation, which is a white oak, marked H. T. B."

The east line of the half mile, had not yet been run and marked.

The village, therefore, moved the matter to Branford, and having agreed, their Committees met and came to the following result,

We the subscribers being appointed to measure ofi' the half mile agreed upon with New-Haven, as by record may appear, to the inhabitants of East-Haven village, in pursuance thereof on the 14th April, 1713, then meeting with East-Haven Gentlemen at the head of the Furnace pond, and after full debate and consideration of the premises, we began at the first bound mark at the head of sayd pond, near the middle of sayd pond, and run a line eastwart ly, square from the old line, which was the dividing line between New-Haven and Branford, an 160 rods to an heap of stones, on the east side ofa small hill, at the upper end of Brushy plane; thence a line northward, according to agreement, to at Walnut Tree marked with B B, and stones at the root, which Tree is 160 rods eastward from the Antient bounds Tree; near Hercules’ meadow, and from the aforesaid Walnut Tree, still northward according to agreement, to the head of the bounds to a White Oak Tree, with letters on it and stones at the root, which is 160 rods eastward from tliE‘AntierYf‘corner at the head of the bounds between New-Haven and Branford. It is agreed, that the abovementioned bounds shall stand and abide to be the bounds between Branford and East-Haven.

As witness our hands.

  SAMUEL RUSSEL, Committee
  DANIEL Comm, 0
  ALLING BALL, East-Haven.
Voted in Town-meeting, BranfOrd, 4th Jan. 1714.”

The 29th Dec. 1679, the village, among other things, petitioned New-Haven for their parish or village bounds to extend as far north as Mudd River; in answer to which they say—“ That their bounds shall be the north side of Alling Ball’s Farme, b a line from the River as his line runs, untill it meets wit Branford line, above Foxon’s.”

Thus the bounds of the town were all fixed.

But after several families on the half mile were set off to North Haven Society, the line in that quarter was changed.

In 1716, the General Court granted the northern parish in New Haven, to be a distinct Eclesiastical Society.

And in May 1718, the Assembly gave them permission to enter into a church state.

A number of East Haven families living on the half mile, were so far from public worship that they requested the privilege of uniting with North Haven Society, which was granted as follows:

New-Haven, Oct. 17 37—In the memorial of Samuel J a-cobs, Daniel Finch, Ben'amin Barns, Isaac Blakeslee, Nathaniel Hitchcock, William Rogers, Abel Smith, Joseph Moulthrop, and Caleb Hitchcock, inhabitants in New-Haven, shewing this Assembly that they are settled within the bounds Parish of East-Haven, on a certain tract of land, called of the the half mile, in the Northeast corner of said Society and remote from the publick worship of God in said Parish, praying this Assembl to discharge them from the said East Socity, and annex t em to the North Society in said Town, so as to include the said memorialists, and no other inhabitants; bounding so far South, as to include Benjamin Barnes’ Farm, and so Eastward to the east part of said half mile between Mr. Mather’s and Mr. Abraham Heminway’s land, and so north to Wallingford Town line, between Branford and said half mile, including all the lands east of the said North Society, within said bounds.”-—[Colony Records.

When North-Haven became a town in 1786, that society line became, of course, the line between the two towns, across the half mile and all the hal mile above that line was taken from the town of East Haven and annexed to the town of North-Haven.

And this alteration of the line on the half mile, accounts for the crookedness of the north line of East Haven.

The whole line between the two towns was surveyed 11th March, 1789: .

Beginning at a heap of stones at Branford line, northeast of the house of Abner Thorpe; thence 4 degrees north 78 rods to the middle of the hi h way or thereabouts to a heap of stones ;—-thence in the high way 47 rods south 5 degrees west to a heap of stones; thence in the line of Jonathan Barnes’ farm west 8 degrees north 80 rods, to the old New-Haven line to a heap of stones; thence 4% degrees west of south, 8t) rods ;-thence south 2% degrees west, 80 rods, to a heap of stones; thence south 3 degrees west 80 rods to a heap of stones; thence in the same line 80 rods more to a lage white oak tree marked; thence west [1 degrees south 80 rods; still in the same course 80 rods more ; thence west 13 degrees south 80 rods; thence west 14 degrees south 80 rods; thence west 12 degrees south 70 rods, to the bend in the Ball farm, and from said bend 10 rods to another monument; thence west 6 degrees and 8 minutes south to the East River; erecting monuments at the distance of every 80 rods, with marked stones at each monument from the white oak Tree to the River; the number of monuments or 80 rods distance is 12, and 49 rods. 1 1th March, 1789.

Josiah Bradley,
Stephen Smit ,
Isaac Chedsey,
Ephraim Hummiston,
Joshua Barnes,
Levy Ray,
This is now, 1824, the condition of the bounds of the
town of East-Haven.
The transactions relative to the Iron “’orks are contain ed in sundry resolutions and orders.

This was, probabl , the first establishment of the kind within the present bou mi; of the state. This business was introduced in the following manner: . v “General Court, N. H. 12th Nov. 1655.

“The Towne was ac uainted that there is a purpose, that an Iron Worke shall be set up beyond the farmes at Stoney River, which is considered will be for a publique vood; and Mr. Goodyear declared that Mr. Winstone and himself did intend to carry it on; only he desired now to know what the Town desired in it; much debate was about it ; but no man engaged in it at present; but divers spoke, that they would give some worke towards making the Damm, whose names and number of days worke were taken, which amounted to about 140 days : so it issued for that time.”

29th Nov. 1655.-The Governor informed the Towne that this meeting was called to consider something further a
bout the Iron Worke, sundry who en d to works, last Court, have not yet erformed, tho’ all at ers have; and it was now concluded t at those that are now behinde, should be called upon to perform what they promised—It was also now desired that men would declare, who will engage in the worke, and what estate they will putin. But few speaking to it, it was desired that those who are willing would meet at the Governor’s this afternoon at 20’clock, to declare themselves therein, and it was now propounded whether the Towne will give up their right in the place, and what accommodation is necessary for the best conveniency of the said Iron Works ,- in this case all the Towne voted to give a full libertie for the Iron Workes to on, and also for wood, water, ironplace, oares, shells for me, or what else is necessar for that worke, upon the Towne lands u on that side 0 the great river, called the East River ; provided, that no man’s proprietie, laid out, or to be laid out, be entered upupon, nor no planter prohibited, from cutting wood, or other conveniency upon the said common, in an or erly way ; and that Branford doe make the like grant, according to their proportion they have in the worke, that future‘questions about this thing may be prevented.

“ 19th May, 1656. Upon motion ofMfi'TflYody√©ar and John Cooper in behalf of the Collier that comes to burn coal for the Iron workes; he had 12 acres of land granted him as his own, if the Iron workes 0 on, and he stay three years in the worke. _ Provided that a l minerals there be reserved, and that he attend all orders of the Towne for the resent, and in disposing of said lands hereafter, if it shall so fall out, to have it. The place propounded for is a piece of land lying betwixt the Great Pond, and the Beaver Meadows, a 100 or 2 acres, about 2 miles from the Iron worke. Against which grant or place none objected, so as to hinder the same.”

This is now called the Farm. It was first in the possession of Theophilus Eaton the Governor.

It was given to his daughter Mary, who married Valentine Hill, merchant, Dover—Pisquataqua.

He sold it to Nathaniel Micklethwaite, merchant, London, 2 Nov. 1660—for £230 sterling, or 81022 22.

He sold it to Thomas Clark of Boston for £100 lawful money, 28th Feb. 1665.—-And in the Township of New-Haven.—T he farm contained 300 acres of upland and 60 acres of meadow.
" 14th Sept. 1657. The Governor informed the Court that Mr. Winthrop has let out his part of the Iron workes to two men in Boston, Capt. Clarke and Mr. Payne, as they have agreed.” _ _

This plan met with a general‘ disapprobation.

Debating followed. It was contended, that as this establishment was made for the pu ose of trade ; there was danger of the en~ tire alienation o?) the trade and the property. And there Would also be a collection of disorderly persons, which would corrupt the morals of the neighborhood, and cause great trouble in the Town. The subject was referred to the Court, and the Townsman John Cooper to consider of 1t, upon what terms to let out the workes, and whether they should cut wood upon our ground.”
'That reference reported thus : '
“An agreement made by the Committee appointed to consider about the Iron workes, was read to the Towne and by vote confirmed and ordered to be entered.”
“ At the Governor’s house, 1 Dec. 1657.”

First, It is agreed that the Iron Workes propounded to and allowed by this Towne, and to which they granted several priveleges, was, and is only for this Furnace now made in the place intended, and expressed, as appeareth by the records, with a Forge, or two, il‘necessary for the Iron which this furnace produceth, which are to be improved by the Townes jointly within the limits allowed by this Court.

Second, This Iron works and all the privileges thereunto be~ longing, were intended and granted for the good of NewHaven and Branford, for bringing and setting up trade there, which in whole or in a great measure the are like to be deprived of, if any part of it be alienate either to strangers, or others out of theirjurisidiction. They, therefore, think it not safe, that any part of it be sold, or leased out, without particular and express law and licence from, the Towne, or Jury, or a Committee, as is appointed for ' house lots or lands.

Third, That our neighbors and friends of Branford provide and supply their art of wood, which is 8-8th parts, with other thiiws of a like nature, from the land within their own limits, and that New-Haven do the like for their 5-8th parts.

Fourth, That all servants, women and others employed in any respect about the Iron workes, shall attend and be subject to all orders and laws already made, or which shall be made and published by this towne, or jurisdiction, as other men.

Fifth, That the grant made by the Iron workes be forthwith delivered to the Secretary here, that it may be read and considered ; as the grant made by New-Haven shall be to them; that the two plantations may receive and bear their due proportion in profits and charges, as was at first provided for.”
How far these resolutions were carried into efi'ect does not appear. But about eight years afterwards, Benjamin Linge prosecuted John Cooper, agent of the Iron works, for the damage he had sustained from the water of the dam. And the people employed there being many of them corrupt foreigners and strangers, were so immoral and vicious as to require the frequent interposition of the civil authority.
'- “ The General Court, therefore, ordered that complaint should be made to Capt. Clark about the disorderly persons that came to the Iron works. And also ordered that the master, clerk, or overseer, and other officers, shall not admit any without a certificate from persons of known reputation, under the penalty of 40 shillings for every ofl'ence ; and if any come or tarry there without such recommendation and permission, shall be liable to the penalty of forty shillings.”
And as a further check to these increasing evils, Matthew Moulthrop, sen. was appointed conservator of the morals of the people about the Iron works.
Of so much consequence was this establishment, that after the union of New-Haven with Connecticut, a special was made to grant the people employed in the work, to ‘free them from taxes for 7 years, as appears from the following order.
“ 13th May, 1669, Upon the petition of Mr. William Andrews, on behalf of Capt. Thomas Clark, master of the Iron. works of New-Haven, for encouragement of the said worke, for the supply of the country with good Iron, and well wrought according to art, this Court do confirm a grant formerly made b New-Haven: That the said persons and estates constant y or only employed in the said work, shall be and are hereby exempt from paying country rates for 7 years next ensuing.”—[ Conn. Col. Rea]

At this period, and until the business was relinquished, Thomas Clark of Boston appears to have been the principal' owner. Business was carried on here both from New-Haven and Branford. It continued until about 1679 or ’80. 'Why the business was relinquished cannot now be satisfactorily ascertained. The furnace was supplied with bog ore from North-Haven. It was chiefly carted, but sometimes brought from bog-mine wharf by water, round to the point below the furnace; and from that circumstance the point to this day is called Bogmine. There was a great mortality in the village in the year 1679, when Ralph Russell, and some other principal workmen died, which may have obstructed the operation; and, probably, the expense was too great to realize sufficient profits.

It is a tradition in the Russell family, that the death of the principal workmen produced this change.
Jasper Crane and John Cooper were overseers and agents. Richard Post was founder; and John Russell was potter in the furnace.

On the [9th Au st, 1680, Thomas Clark sold to sergt‘l' John Potter, “ Al that farm lying and being within the township of New-Haven, and near and adjoining to a brook called by the name of Stoney brook, which Thomas Clarke bought of Nathaniel Micklethwaite of the city of London, ' merchant, containeth by estimation 300 acres of upland, be it more or less, and 3 score acres of meadow, be it more or less, adjoining thereto ; exeepting always all the uplandsthat hath been formerly sold from the said farme or Iron workes, reserving only all the Iron worke plates of Iron, and the moveables to himself, that are upon the premises.” John Potter was to pay £40 per annum for 21 years, in wheat, ork and peas.”

The Farm soon passed into the hands of \Nilliam Rosewell, whose only daughter and heir married Gurdon Saltonstall, Governor of Connecticut.

Sergt. John Potter did not resume the Iron business, as was contemplated when he bought the farm. But in the year 1692, he and Thomas Pinion petitioned New-Haven for liberty to build a Bloomary on the first spring, or brook towards Foxon. In April, “ some of the townsmen having viewed the brooke that runs into Stoney river at the place, or thereabouts, which was moved for by John Potter, formerly, to set up a Bloomary ; the town by vote approved of‘ his design of a Bloomary ; and for his encoura ement allow him the use of said brooke, and 20 acres of and, not exceeding 30, near the first spring, the west side of StOney river ; and grant him the liberty of what lron mines there are within the town bounds, and the use of what wood he needs in the commons for the work, if it proves efl'ectual.

And the aforesaid land is to be laid out and bounded to him, by the surveyor, and one or two of the Townsmen. Always preslgrvipg the necessary highways if there be any.”-LN. H. ec.

This Bloomary was established, but we cannot find how long it was in operation.
'1 he site of the Furnace was sequestered for a grist-mill, as appears from the following curious document on East-Haven records:
“ Articles of agreement made between the Inhabitants of Stoney River of the one party, and Samuel Heminway of the other party, 2 July, 1681, is as followeth, concerning setting up of a Grist-Mill at the Furnace Dam. >

1. “ The said Villa e doth for his encouragement give the Furnace Dam, with t re use of the water damed therewith, and do promise to defend the said Heminway in the possession thereof, (80 far as in their power) without let or molestation from any, either New-Haven or Branford, or any oth— er; reserving liberty for John Potter to have a convenient place for water from the same pond, to set up and manage a ' Bloomary Furnace of Iron, if the said Potter shall at any time, hereafter, see cause to enter upon such a design.”

2. “The said Village doth give to the said Heminway the land that lies next to his house between Stoney River and the Farme, to the quantity of an acre or two, if it may be spared from the highways, as they shall see good to set out to him, and 16 or 17 acres of land elsewhere, that may be convenient for the said Heminway.

Third, “The said Vill e do free the said Grist Mill from paying taxes to the sai Vill e or Town.
4. “ The Inhabitants of t e said Village do engage to bring the corn that they would have ground into meal, to the said Mill.
5. “ The said Inhabitants do engage to perform the whole work of what is necessary for the setting down said Mill, and to repair it, that the Dam may be secure from breaches at the setting down said Mill. But the said Heminway is to secure it at his own charges for the future, when some extraordinary, or unexpected accident shall hap en to it.
6. “ The said Inhabitants ofthe said Village 0 engage to assist him to raise the Mill Stones, and to get them to the said Mill, and to give the said Samuel Heminway liberty to use what timber and stones may be needful for building and repairing the said Mill, as shall be most convenient for him in that business.
“ And in consideration of the premises, the said Samuel Heminway doth en age as followeth:

First, That the sai Heminway will, before the next winter, in November next ensuing, set up a sufficient Grist Mill, at the above place, and keep the said mill in good repair, fit to make good and sufficient meal of corn, that is dry and fit for
rindin . ' g 2. “ hat he the said Heminway will set up a house over the Mill sutlicient to secure the inhabitants’ corn from damage by the neighbours hogs, or other creatures, that might otherwise devour it—within his compass.
3. “That the said Heminway or somebody for him, shall attend at the said Mill, one day in a fortnight, if there he need, to grind for the inhabitants their corn. And shall spend more time, and give attendance on the same, if need be, that is, till he hath ground all that is brought to be ground the said day. “
4. “ That the said Heminway will take no more toll for the grinding our com into meal than what the law allows.
5. “That he will either keep this mill himself, or if he shall let it to any other, it shall be to such an one as the Inhabitants of the Village shall a rove of.
6. “ The said land,'ttifsTn?lP 1 a ‘ 0 ie‘sfiil Heminwa , to/be for the use of said Mill, and so contin ue, excep ‘the 16 or 20 acres given him.
“ The first article is thus to be so understood that the said Heminway doth enga to hear his share with the other lnhabitants of the said illage in any damage that may fall by the Dam or Stream, or by any trouble for the same, by New-Haven or Branford or'any other. And as for the land about the house, mentioned in this agreement, it be understood, that the said Heminway is to have what can be spared there from highways and across on the other side of the pond.
“ The abovesaid articles of agreement concerning the Mill, made between the said Samuel Heminway and the Inhabitants of said Village, 2d July, 1681, is confirmed by Vote to be their doings.”-—[E. H. Ree]
The grant of 16 or 17 acres, the town of New-Haven refused to ratify. '
About 25 years after this transaction, the sons of Samuel Heminwa , viz. John and Abraham, obtained a grant of the Mill privi ege from Branford, as follows: ‘ '
f‘ Branford, 9.3 Angt. 1706.--At a meeting of the Propri
etors, warned according to law, John and Abraham Heminway, of New-Haven Iron works, desire us to at them lib— erty to erect a Dam on the Furnace pond, w ere it formerly was, and to (get stone, and timber and earth to erect the same, on our si e.”
1. “ We having considered the public benefit such a Mill may be, doe on the terms following grant the desire of the said John and Abraham Heminway, viz. that they shall raise the said Dam no higher than it was formerly, nor no higher, than shall be allowed by Mr. William Maltbie, Deacon John Rose, Sergt. Nathaniel Foot, of Branford, when they shall view said Mill place.”
2. “ John and Abraham Heminway and all who shall after them possess and improve said Mill, shall at all times, hereafter, grind what corn shall come from this Towne, in turn, as it shall come to said Mill, not preferring others before them.”
3. “ The said John and Abraham Heminway, their heirs and assigns, shall erect and maintayne a sufficient Mill at said place, at all times, hereafter forever; upon those aforesaid conditions, we grant the request of said John and Abraham Heminway. But if they or any, who shall at any time hereafter possess said mill, shall retuse or neglect to perform any or all the abovementioned conditions, then this grant shall be void and of no effect, that we, or our successors, may set up 3. Mill ourselves for the public benefit on this side.”
Voted,and passedeest, by Wm. Maltbie, Clerk—[Bram forrl Rea]
The manner of expression in this document intimates that the mill had not been erected by their father, as was expected when he obtained the village grant.
The water privilege where the forge stood was disposed of afterwards. Samuel Heminway applied to the town of New-Haven for it and obtained the following order:
“ April 26th, 1687. Samuel Heminway moved to have liberty to set a fulling mill where the forge formerly stood. After much debate the towne granted liberty to the said Heminway to set up a fulling mill in the forementioned place, provided that he make no dam' that shall make a 0nd to raise the water above two feet deep 11 on Austin’s ighway. And that he consider beforehan , whether such a. dam, but of such a height as aforesaid, will answer his pur~
Upon this grant, and one that was made by the village in Diference betwen Branford and New-Haven. 31
1706, John and Abraham Heminway, and John Marsh, jointly, erected a fulling mill in 1709, on the premises.

In [684 it was contemplated to build a saw-mill on the first sprin .

That plan was relinquished, and one was built on Clayplt brook, below Danforth’s swamp, which. was abandoned many years ago.

A negotiation had been carried on with Branford, concerning land that lay within their bounds, that the had not paid for, and that New-Haven had granted to the vi lage,

Branford, finally, promised them land. But the execution of that promise was delayed ; the village grew impatient and and passed the following order:

“ At a formal meeting of the village, 15th Feb. 1681, it was propounded that we might choose men to treat with Branford about the land in their bounds that was given to us and is now in contention. After some debate it was ordered and appointed, that John Potter, Samuel Heminway, John Thompson, Nathaniel Hitchcock, Alling Ball, jun. and Matthew Moulthrop, them or any four of them were empow ~ ered to treat that matter with our friends of Branford as to land or line, and finish it.”
This vote was predicated on a grant from New-Haven in Dec. 1679 as follows, viz. :—“ For the Quinipiack land now within the town of Branford, and was at first bou ht by us, and never payed for by Branford to us, that the owne Would grant unto them our right, the better to enable them to treat with Branford for enlargement on the purchase mone due, with the consideration that New-Haven hath been oug out of purse.”_
The same month that the village passed the before-mentioned vote, Branford acted on the subject thus:
“ Whereas there is a difference between the Towne of Branford and the Ironworke farmers (or inhabitants of NewHaven) concerning the propriety of lands in Branford bounds. At a Towne meeting in Branford, Feb. 1681, the Towne have unanimously agreed to leave the case depending to a Committee. And the Towne have made choice of and appointed Mr. William Rosewell, Mr. Edward Barker, Thomas Harrison, William Hoadly, and Eleazer Stent, a Committee for the issue of the case aforesaid, and they do give them full power, in the behalf of the Towne, either by composition with the farmers, (or New-Haven'inhabitants) or to manage the said case at General Court, either by themselves, or anyother attorney or attorneys, as they see cause, and to be at what char e they cause in the management thereof. They do also esire and appoint the said Committee, to take into their custody whatsoever writings or conveyances, may be had (or copies of them) that concern the Towne—And do engage to reimburse what charges the committee shall be at in the whole case.”
But as an attempt to settle the controvers failed, the Village proceeded to the use of some high-tone language on the subject, which was met by Branford in the annexed resolution:
“ Whereas the Ironworks farmers have given us notice that if we do not grant them land, then they will run a line in our bounds. At a'l‘owne meeting in Branford, 8th July, 1681 ; the inhabitants of the Towne did answer and declare by vote that the farmers have no right to do with the running of any line or lines in our bounds, or within our Township, and, therefore, do protest against any such proceeding, as an invasion of our just rights and privileges, and further do forbid them or any ofthem to enter upon our Towne bounds with any such design, if the do, be it at their peril.”

The case was brought begire the General Court the next fall, and that body adopted some measures to promote an adjustment of their difficulties.
“ At a General Court held at Hartford, 18th Oct. 1681.
“ \Vhereas there is adii’ference between Branford and the farmers on the East side, about the line between New—Haven and sayd Branford, or New-Haven purchase of the Indians, this Court do request the Deputy Governor, and Mr. Andrew Leete, and Mr. Samuel Eales to take some pains to examine the case, and t0 endeavour an accommodation between them, and if they cannot attayn an issue, they are to make report how they find it to the next Court, where both parties are to attend for issue, and the sayd Towne of Branford, and the farmers, are to attend to this atl'ayre, when they shall be appointed by the Deputy Governor; they, viz. the Committee, are also to consider other things.

And they did!