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Monday, February 22, 2016

BRIDGE OF SPIES

Speranza


Bridge of Spies
Bridge of Spies poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed bySteven Spielberg
Produced by
Written by
Starring
Music byThomas Newman
CinematographyJanusz Kamiński
Edited byMichael Kahn
Production
companies
Distributed by
Release dates
Running time
141 minutes[2][3]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$40 million[4]
Box office$164.1 million[5]
Bridge of Spies is a 2015 American historical drama-thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg from a screenplay written by Matt CharmanEthan Coen, and Joel Coen. The film stars Tom HanksMark RylanceAmy Ryan, and Alan Alda. Based on the 1960 U-2 incident during the Cold War, the film tells the story of lawyer James B. Donovan, who is entrusted with negotiating the release of Francis Gary Powers—a pilot whose U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union—in exchange for Rudolf Abel, a captive Soviet KGB spy held under the custody of the United States. The name of the film refers to the Glienicke Bridge, which connects Potsdam with Berlin, where the spy exchange took place.
Bridge of Spies was shot under the working title of St. James PlacePrincipal photography began on September 8, 2014, in BrooklynNew York City, and the production proceeded at Babelsberg Studios in Potsdam. The film was released by Touchstone Pictures on October 16, 2015, in North America and distributed by 20th Century Fox in other territories.[6] It was a box office success, grossing $164.1 million worldwide and received critical acclaim, garnering praise for its direction, screenplay, acting, and production merits. The film is nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best PictureBest Supporting Actor (for Rylance), and Best Original Screenplay.

Plot[edit]

In Brooklyn, New York, in 1957, Rudolf Abel retrieves a secret message from a park bench and reads it just before FBI agents burst into his rented room. He prevents discovery of the message, but other evidence in the room leads to his arrest and prosecution as a Soviet spy.
James B. Donovan, a lawyer who specializes in insurance settlements, is asked by his partners to take on Abel's defense. The United Statesbelieve that Abel is a KGB spy, but wants him to have a fair trial to reduce the Soviet Union's opportunity to use it for propaganda. Donovan meets with Abel in prison, where the Soviet agrees to accept his help. Abel refuses to cooperate with the U.S. government on any revelations of the intelligence world.
Although Donovan takes his work seriously, no one—including the prosecuting attorneys, the judge, his firm, or his family—expects him to mount a strong defense of Abel. His efforts to seek acquittal are met with shock and anger by the American public; he is deluged with hate mail and his life is threatened, but he continues to fight.
Abel is found guilty of all charges, but Donovan convinces the judge to sentence him to 30 years imprisonment, rather than death, on the grounds that Abel may one day be valuable as a bargaining chip with the USSR. Donovan subsequently appeals to the U.S. Supreme Court that the evidence presented by the prosecution is tainted by an invalid search warrant. He invokes the rhetoric of the U.S. Constitution and leaders who founded the government. They made a legal justice system possible, an objective system where cases would not be subject to whims of fear and trepidation. He reminds the court how resolute Abel is in not divulging any classified information, asking if the United States should stand as strongly and protect the legal system for what it is. He loses 5–4.
In the meantime, Francis Gary Powers goes on a U-2 spy plane sortie over the Soviet Union, where he is shot down and captured. He is convicted and subjected to interrogation. Frederic Pryor, an American economics graduate student, visits his German girlfriend in East Berlin just as the Berlin Wall is being built. He tries to bring her back into West Berlin, but is stopped by border guards and arrested as an American spy.
The USSR sends a backchannel message to Donovan, via a false letter to Abel from his "family", proposing a prisoner exchange: Abel for Powers. Donovan travels to Berlin to begin negotiations. He hears of Pryor's capture and insists on a 2-for-1 exchange instead. Although the CIA is interested only in Powers's return, it allows Donovan to negotiate for Pryor as well on the condition that the Abel-for-Powers deal is not jeopardized.
The East German government, which is holding Pryor, suddenly pulls out, insulted that Donovan did not inform them that the USSR was a party to the negotiation. The CIA wants to leave Pryor behind and finish the exchange. Donovan threatens East Germany by saying that, unless Pryor is released, the entire deal will be scrapped, Abel may talk, and the USSR would blame East Germany for any damage. Through long hours and patience, his steely resolve is rewarded. East Germany complies, and the exchange is conducted at the Glienicke Bridge and Checkpoint Charlie simultaneously, freeing the three men. Donovan gains credit for his achievement.

Historical accuracy[edit]

The film is based on the real-life arrest and trial of US spy pilot Gary Powers, who was shot down by Soviet forces when flying over the Russian city of Sverdlovsk in 1960.[7] The movie departs from the historical record, though reviewers have praised the film and argued that such departures are permissible.[8]
Commentators have noted that the shortening of timespans in the film at times gives a misleading impression.[9][10] One key example is the depiction of the Berlin Wall. Donovan did not see Berlin wall escapees being shot; the shootings most similar to the one depicted is the killing of Peter Fechter that happened the summer after the Powers/Abel exchange on the Glienicke Bridge.[9][10][11] Similarly, the circumstances of Frederic Pryor's detention were not accurately portrayed – he could not have crossed a partially built wall,[10][11] and further, was convicted of obtaining "confidential" material.[9]
Apart from the depiction of the Wall, it is notable that Donovan did not suffer quite the extent of violence depicted: he was not shot at in his home,[9][10] and he did not have his overcoat stolen.[9]The film also changed the location of Donovan's suggestion to the judge to spare Abel for the sake of a possible future exchange, which was in fact made in open court.[8][10]
Abel, an English-born Soviet intelligence officer (whose real name was William G. Fisher) most likely did his best work for the Soviet Union not as a spy in a dishevelled New York City lair full of radio gear, but before and during World War II, when he trained agents and radio operators for clandestine work in Nazi-occupied regions. This training is thought to have been critical to what his mentor, Pavel Sudoplatov, later called one of the most important radio deception operations of the war.[12]

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

James Donovan wrote an account of the incident in 1964 under the title Strangers on a Bridge: The Case of Colonel Abel and Francis Gary Powers.[13] The historical background to the U-2incident and the story of former West Berlin CIA chief William King Harvey and Operation Gold was published in Rory MacLean's Berlin: Portrait of a City Through the Centuries (2014).[14] Soviet intelligence officer Rudolf Abel, who lived and operated in Brooklyn Heights, did dead drops of stolen documents in Prospect Park. His arrest and history were discussed by Truman Capote, another Heights resident at the time, in his book A House in the Heights.
Matt Charman became interested in Donovan's story after reading a footnote about him in An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917–1963.[15] After meeting with Donovan's son in New York City, Charman pitched the story to several studios and DreamWorks bought it. Studio co-founder Steven Spielberg became interested in the film and decided to direct.[16] Marc Platt and Kristie Macosko Krieger attached themselves as producers along with Spielberg. Joel Coen and Ethan Coen revised Matt Charman's original script.[17] According to Charman, the brothers "were able to really punch up the negotiations on the back end of the movie, then they handed the baton back to me to do a pass after they did their pass, to make the movie just sit in a place we all wanted it to. The flavor they brought is so fun and enjoyable. It needed to be entertaining but truthful."[15]
In June 2014, Fox 2000 Pictures agreed to co-finance the film with DreamWorks and Participant Media, with the film's distribution rights being divided between Disney and Fox.[18] During a March 3, 2015, interview with The Daily Pennsylvanian, Platt revealed the title to be Bridge of Spies; it was shot under the working title of St. James Place.[19]
In May 2014, it was announced that Tom Hanks would star as James Donovan, with Mark Rylance co-starring as Abel. Amy RyanAlan AldaBilly Magnussen, and Eve Hewson were reported to star in the film as well.[20][21] Participant Media co-produced the film.[22] Francis Gary Powers, Jr., founder of The Cold War Museum and the pilot's son, was brought on as a technical consultant and has a cameo in the film.

Filming[edit]

Principal photography began on September 8, 2014, in BrooklynNew York City.[23] On September 14, filming took place in DUMBO, a Brooklyn neighborhood, where crews transformed Anchorage Street to appear as it did in the 1960s.[24][25] On September 15, filming took place in Astoria, between Astoria Park and the Ditmars Boulevard. Filming was done on 18 Street and 26 Avenue in Astoria, where Spielberg was spotted transforming the 5 Corners Deli into a 1950s grocery store.[26][27][28] On September 26, filming took place on 44th Street in Manhattan, as evidenced by crews stationed on 44th Street, between Madison and 6th Avenues. On September 27, Hanks was spotted filming scenes on Wall Street among extras wearing 1960s costumes.[29] On September 28, filming of some day and night scenes took place on the corner of Henry Street and Love Lane in the Brooklyn Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn, where the block was set with vintage cars, street signs, rain machines, and spotlights.[30] On September 29, filming took place on Hicks Street and Pineapple Street, where a shop, Perfect Paws, was transformed into a 1960s dress shop named Brooklyn Pearl,[31] and at the NYS Appellate Division courthouse on Monroe Place and Pierrepont Street. On October 6, Hanks and the crew were spotted on the same location on Hicks Street.[32]
In early October, after filming wrapped in New York City, further production began at Babelsberg Studios in Berlin and Potsdam, Germany, and would last there through the end of November.[33][34] Filming in Berlin began with shooting at the former Tempelhof Airport in October, for scenes that actually took place there, such as Donovan's descending from an historic C-54 Skymaster.[35] A prisoner exchange scene was filmed on the Glienicke Bridge (the so-called "Bridge of Spies"), where the historical exchange actually took place in 1962.[36][37] The bridge spans the Havel narrows between Berlin and Potsdam, and was closed to traffic for filming over the last weekend of November.[38][39] German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited the set to watch the filming of these scenes.[40] Principal photography officially ended on December 4, at Berlin Tempelhof.
Shooting also took place in WrocławPoland, in the second half of November.[33][41] During mid-December, filming took place at Beale Air Force Base, located near MarysvilleCalifornia.[42]

Release[edit]

Bridge of Spies was distributed in North America by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, through its Touchstone Pictures banner.[43][44] Disney held the film's world premiere on October 4, 2015[45] at the 53rd annual New York Film Festival.[46][47] The film went into general theatrical release in the United States on October 16, 2015.[48] 20th Century Fox distributed the film in the remaining international territories.[43]
The theatrical poster for the film was released on June 4, 2015,[49] with the first trailer appearing online the following day.[50]

Home media[edit]

The film was released by Touchstone Home Entertainment on Blu-rayDVD, and digital download in North America on February 2, 2016 and by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment in other territories on March 28.[51]

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

As of January 28, 2016, Bridge of Spies has grossed $71.7 million in North America and $89.2 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $160.9 million, against a budget of $40 million.[5]
In the United States and Canada, pre-release tracking predicted Bridge of Spies to open to around $15–20 million from 2,811 theaters.[52][53] The film opened alongside GoosebumpsCrimson Peak, and Woodlawn on October 16, 2015, and also faced competition from The Martian, which was entering its third week.[54] The film made $500,000 from its early Thursday night showings and $5.3 million on its opening day.[55][56] In its opening weekend, the film grossed $15.4 million, finishing third at the box office behind Goosebumps ($23.5 million) and The Martian ($21.5 million).[57]
Its biggest international markets have been Australia and South Korea, where it made $1.3 million and $922,936 respectively on its opening weekend.[5]

Critical reception[edit]

Bridge of Spies received positive reviews. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a rating of 91%, based on 242 reviews, with an average rating of 7.8/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Bridge of Spies finds new life in Hollywood's classic Cold War espionage thriller formula, thanks to reliably outstanding work from Steven Spielberg and Tom Hanks".[58] On Metacritic, the film has a score of 81 out of 100, based on 48 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[59] On CinemaScore, audiences gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.[57]
Richard Roeper of the Chicago Sun Times praised the film, particularly Spielberg's direction, saying: "Spielberg has taken an important but largely forgotten and hardly action-packed slice of the Cold War and turned it into a gripping character study and thriller that feels a bit like a John Le Carre adaptation if Frank Capra were at the controls".[60] Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribunecalled the film a "a confident, slightly square, highly satisfying example of old-school Hollywood craftsmanship, starring a major movie star brandishing a briefcase, and a handkerchief, rather than a pistol".[61] The A.V. Club's Ignatiy Vishnevetsky described it as "one of the most handsome movies of Spielberg's latter-day phase, and possibly the most eloquent [...] Bridge of Spiesturns a secret prisoner exchange between the CIA and the KGB into a tense and often disarmingly funny cat-and-mouse game".[62]
On the other hand, Mike Scott of New Orleans Times-Picayune, had a more mixed reaction, saying: "Bridge of Spies, with its stop-and-go momentum, is also more merely interesting than it is full-on riveting. It's still quite good stuff, but despite its impressive pedigree... it doesn't feel as if it's quite the sum of all of its parts".[63] Preston Jones of Fort Worth Star-Telegram gave the film 2 and a half stars out of five. Jones wrote that "For all Spielberg, his star-packed cast, led by Tom Hanks, and his on-screen and off-screen team (Joel and Ethan Coen co-wrote the screenplay) bring to the table, Bridge of Spies is remarkable only for how stuffy and surprisingly inert the film becomes".[64]

Accolades[edit]

AwardCategoryRecipientResultRef.
88th Academy AwardsBest PictureKristie Macosko KriegerMarc Platt and Steven SpielbergPending[65]
Best Supporting ActorMark RylancePending
Best Original ScreenplayMatt CharmanJoel and Ethan CoenPending
Best Original ScoreThomas NewmanPending
Best Production DesignAdam StockhausenBernhard Henrich and Rena DeAngeloPending
Best Sound MixingDrew KuninAndy Nelson and Gary RydstromPending
American Film Institute Awards 2015Top 10 Films of the YearKristie Macosko Krieger, Marc Platt and Steven SpielbergWon[66]
69th British Academy Film AwardsBest FilmKristie Macosko Krieger, Marc Platt and Steven SpielbergNominated[67]
Best Actor in a Supporting RoleMark RylanceWon
Best DirectionSteven SpielbergNominated
Best Original ScreenplayMatt Charman, Joel and Ethan CoenNominated
Best Film MusicThomas NewmanNominated
Best CinematographyJanusz KamińskiNominated
Best EditingMichael KahnNominated
Best Production DesignAdam Stockhausen, Bernhard Henrich and Rena DeAngeloNominated
Best SoundDrew Kunin, Richard Hymns, Andy Nelson and Gary RydstromNominated
21st Critics' Choice AwardsBest PictureKristie Macosko Krieger, Marc Platt and Steven SpielbergNominated[68]
Best DirectorSteven SpielbergNominated
Best Supporting ActorMark RylanceNominated
Best Original ScreenplayMatt Charman, Joel and Ethan CoenNominated
Best Art DirectionAdam Stockhausen and Rena DeAngeloNominated
73rd Golden Globe AwardsBest Supporting ActorMark RylanceNominated[69]
Indiana Film Journalists Association AwardsBest Original ScreenplayMatt Charman, Joel and Ethan CoenNominated[70]
Best DirectorSteven SpielbergNominated
Best ActorTom HanksNominated
Best Supporting ActorMark RylanceNominated
National Board of ReviewTop Ten FilmsKristie Macosko Krieger, Marc Platt and Steven SpielbergWon[71]
New York Film Critics CircleBest Supporting ActorMark RylanceWon[72]
Online Film Critics SocietyBest Supporting ActorMark RylanceNominated[73]
Producers Guild of America AwardBest Theatrical Motion PictureKristie Macosko Krieger, Marc Platt and Steven SpielbergNominated[74]
San Diego Film Critics SocietyBest Supporting ActorMark RylanceNominated[75]
20th Satellite AwardsBest FilmKristie Macosko Krieger, Marc Platt and Steven SpielbergNominated[76]
Best DirectorSteven SpielbergNominated
Best Original ScreenplayMatt Charman, Joel and Ethan CoenNominated
Best Art Direction and Production DesignAdam Stockhausen, Bernhard Henrich and Rena DeAngeloWon
Best Film EditingMichael KahnNominated
22nd Screen Actors Guild AwardsOutstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting RoleMark RylanceNominated[77]
Visual Effects SocietyOutstanding Supporting Visual Effects in a Photoreal FeatureSven Martin, Jennifer Meislohn, Charlie Noble, Sean Stranks, Gerd NefzerNominated[78]
Writers Guild of America AwardBest Original ScreenplayMatt Charman, Joel and Ethan CoenNominated[79]

Soundtrack[edit]

Bridge of Spies (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)
Film score by Thomas Newman
ReleasedOctober 16, 2015
StudioNewman Scoring StageLos Angeles
GenreSoundtrack
Length48:25
LabelHollywood
Thomas Newman chronology
The Second Best Exotic Marigold Hotel
(2015)
Bridge of Spies
(2015)
Spectre
(2015)
Frequent Spielberg collaborator John Williams was originally announced to compose the film's score. However, Williams had to drop out of production due to a health issue.[43] Thomas Newman was then contacted by Spielberg to replace Williams, marking Spielberg's first film without Williams' music since 1985's The Color Purple, which was scored by Quincy Jones.[80] Hollywood Records released the film's soundtrack on October 16, 2015.[81]
All music composed by Thomas Newman.
No.TitleLength
1."Hall of Trade Unions, Moscow"  0:43
2."Sunlit Silence"  4:04
3."Ejection Protocol"  1:56
4."Standing Man"  2:11
5."Rain"  1:21
6."Lt. Francis Gary Powers"  3:04
7."The Article"  1:36
8."The Wall"  2:14
9."Private Citizen"  1:35
10."The Impatient Plan"  1:35
11."West Berlin"  1:12
12."Friedrichstrasse Station"  1:20
13."Glienicke Bridge"  10:51
14."Homecoming"  7:46
15."Bridge of Spies (End Title)"   
Total length:
48:25

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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